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  • Author: Aaron T. Scanlan x
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Aaron T. Scanlan, Ben J. Dascombe, Andrew P. Kidcaff, Jessica L. Peucker and Vincent J. Dalbo

Purpose:

To compare game activity demands between female and male semiprofessional basketball players.

Methods:

Female (n = 12) and male (n = 12) semiprofessional basketball players were monitored across 3 competitive games. Time–motion-analysis procedures quantified player activity into predefined movement categories across backcourt (BC) and frontcourt (FC) positions. Activity frequencies, durations, and distances were calculated relative to live playing time (min). Work:rest ratios were also calculated using the video data. Game activity was compared between genders for each playing position and all players.

Results:

Female players performed at greater running work-rates than male players (45.7 ± 1.4 vs. 42.1 ± 1.7 m/min, P = .05), while male players performed more dribbling than female players (2.5 ± 0.3 vs. 3.0 ± 0.2 s/min; 8.4 ± 0.3 vs. 9.7 ± 0.7 m/min, P = .05). Positional analyses revealed that female BC players performed more low-intensity shuffling (P = .04) and jumping (P = .05), as well as longer (P = .04) jogging durations, than male BC players. Female FC players executed more upper-body activity (P = .03) and larger work:rest ratios (P < .001) than male FC players. No significant gender differences were observed in the overall intermittent demands, distance traveled, high-intensity shuffling activity, and sprinting requirements during game play.

Conclusions:

These findings indicate that gender-specific running and dribbling differences might exist in semiprofessional basketball. Furthermore, position-specific variations between female and male basketball players should be considered. These data may prove useful in the development of gender-specific conditioning plans relative to playing position in basketball.

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Henrikas Paulauskas, Rasa Kreivyte, Aaron T. Scanlan, Alexandre Moreira, Laimonas Siupsinskas and Daniele Conte

Purpose: To assess the weekly fluctuations in workload and differences in workload according to playing time in elite female basketball players. Methods: A total of 29 female basketball players (mean [SD] age 21 [5] y, stature 181 [7] cm, body mass 71 [7] kg, playing experience 12 [5] y) belonging to the 7 women’s basketball teams competing in the first-division Lithuanian Women’s Basketball League were recruited. Individualized training loads (TLs) and game loads (GLs) were assessed using the session rating of perceived exertion after each training session and game during the entire in-season phase (24 wk). Percentage changes in total weekly TL (weekly TL + GL), weekly TL, weekly GL, chronic workload, acute:chronic workload ratio, training monotony, and training strain were calculated. Mixed linear models were used to assess differences for each dependent variable, with playing time (low vs high) used as fixed factor and subject, week, and team as random factors. Results: The highest changes in total weekly TL, weekly TL, and acute:chronic workload ratio were evident in week 13 (47%, 120%, and 49%, respectively). Chronic workload showed weekly changes ≤10%, whereas monotony and training strain registered highest fluctuations in weeks 17 (34%) and 15 (59%), respectively. A statistically significant difference in GL was evident between players completing low and high playing times (P = .026, moderate), whereas no significant differences (P > .05) were found for all other dependent variables. Conclusions: Coaches of elite women’s basketball teams should monitor weekly changes in workload during the in-season phase to identify weeks that may predispose players to unwanted spikes and adjust player workload according to playing time.

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Daniel M. Berkelmans, William M. Vickery and Crystal O. Kean

Cricket is a popular international team sport with various game formats ranging from long-duration multiday tests to short-duration Twenty20 game play. The role of batsmen is critical to all game formats, with differing physiological demands imposed during each format. Investigation of the physiological demands imposed during cricket batting has historically been neglected, with much of the research focusing on bowling responses and batting technique. A greater understanding of the physiological demands of the batting role in cricket is required to assist strength and conditioning professionals and coaches with the design of training plans, recovery protocols, and player-management strategies. This brief review provides an updated synthesis of the literature examining the internal (eg, metabolic demands and heart rate) and external (eg, activity work rates) physiological responses to batting in the various game formats, as well as simulated play and small-sided-games training. Although few studies have been done in this area, the summary of data provides important insight regarding physiological responses to batting and highlights that more research on this topic is required. Future research is recommended to combine internal and external measures during actual game play, as well as comparing different game formats and playing levels. In addition, understanding the relationship between batting technique and physiological responses is warranted to gain a more holistic understanding of batting in cricket, as well as to develop appropriate coaching and training strategies.

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Nattai R. Borges, Aaron T. Scanlan, Peter R. Reaburn and Thomas M. Doering

Purpose: Due to age-related changes in the psychobiological state of masters athletes, this brief report aimed to compare training load responses using heart rate (HR) and ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) during standardized training sessions between masters and young cyclists. Methods: Masters (n = 10; 55.6 [5.0] y) and young (n = 8; 25.9 [3.0] y) cyclists performed separate endurance and high-intensity interval training sessions. Endurance intensity was set at 95% of ventilatory threshold 2 for 1 hour. High-intensity interval training consisted of 6 × 30-second intervals at 175% peak power output with 4.5-minute rest between intervals. HR was monitored continuously and RPE collected at standardized time periods during each session. Banister training impulse and summated-HR-zones training loads were also calculated. Results: Despite a significantly lower mean HR in masters cyclists during endurance (P = .04; d = 1.06 [±0.8], moderate) and high-intensity interval training (P = .01; d = 1.34 [±0.8], large), no significant differences were noted (P > .05) when responses were determined relative to maximum HR or converted to training impulse and summated-HR-zone loads. Furthermore, no interaction or between-group differences were evident for RPE across either session (P > .05). Conclusions: HR and RPE values were comparable between masters and young cyclists when relative HR responses and HR training load models are used. This finding suggests HR and RPE methods used to monitor or prescribe training load can be used interchangeably between masters and young athletes irrespective of chronological age.

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Jordan L. Fox, Aaron T. Scanlan, Robert Stanton, Cody J. O’Grady and Charli Sargent

Purpose: To examine the impact of workload volume during training sessions and games on subsequent sleep duration and sleep quality in basketball players. Methods: Seven semiprofessional male basketball players were monitored across preseason and in-season phases to determine training session and game workloads, sleep duration, and sleep quality. Training and game data were collected via accelerometers, heart-rate monitors, and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and reported as PlayerLoad (PL), summated heart-rate zones, and session RPE (sRPE). Sleep duration and sleep quality were measured using wrist-worn activity monitors in conjunction with self-report sleep diaries. For daily training sessions and games, all workload data were independently sorted into tertiles representing low, medium, and high workload volumes. Sleep measures following low, medium, and high workloads and control nights (no training/games) were compared using linear mixed models. Results: Sleep onset time was significantly later following medium and high PL and sRPE game workloads compared with control nights (P < .05). Sleep onset time was significantly later following low, medium, and high summated heart-rate-zones game workloads, compared with control nights (P < .05). Time in bed and sleep duration were significantly shorter following high PL and sRPE game workloads compared with control nights (P < .05). Following low, medium, and high training workloads, sleep duration and quality were similar to control nights (P > .05). Conclusions: Following high PL and sRPE game workloads, basketball practitioners should consider strategies that facilitate longer time in bed, such as napping and/or adjusting travel or training schedules the following day.

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Cody J. O’Grady, Jordan L. Fox, Vincent J. Dalbo and Aaron T. Scanlan

Purpose: To systematically quantify the external and internal workloads reported during games-based drills in basketball and identify the effects of different modifiable factors on the workloads encountered. Methods: PubMed, Scopus, MEDLINE, and SPORTDiscus databases were searched for original research published up until January 2, 2019. The search included terms relevant to workload, games-based drills, and basketball. Studies were screened using predefined selection criteria, and methodological quality was assessed prior to data extraction. Results: The electronic search yielded 8,284 studies with 3,411 duplicates. A total of 17 studies met the inclusion criteria for this review, with quality scores ranging from 9 to 10 out of 11. Factors regularly modified during games-based drills among the included studies were team size, playing area, playing and rest time, and game alterations. Games-based drills containing smaller team sizes elicited greater external and internal workloads compared to larger team sizes. Furthermore, full-court games-based drills elicited greater external and internal workloads compared to half-court drills, while continuous games-based drills elicited greater internal workloads compared to intermittent drills. Conclusions: This review provides a comprehensive collation of data indicating the external and internal workloads reported during different games-based drills in various samples of basketball players. Furthermore, evidence is provided for basketball coaches to consider when prescribing games-based drills and modifying factors during drills across the season. Current literature suggests that smaller team sizes and full-court playing areas elicit greater external and internal workloads than larger team sizes and half-court drills, respectively. Furthermore, continuous games-based drills elicit greater internal workloads than intermittent drills.

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Marni J. Simpson, David G. Jenkins, Aaron T. Scanlan and Vincent G. Kelly

Purpose: To examine relationships between external- and internal-workload variables in an elite female netball team, with consideration of positional differences. Methods: Nine elite female netball athletes had their weekly workloads monitored across their preseason and competition phases of a season. Internal workload was determined using summated heart-rate (HR) zones and session ratings of perceived exertion (sRPE), whereas external workload was determined using inertial movement units and included absolute PlayerLoad (PL), relative PL (PL per minute), accelerations (ACCEL), decelerations (DECEL), jumps, changes of direction (COD), high-intensity events, medium-intensity events, low-intensity events, PL in the forward direction, PL in the sideways direction, and PL in the vertical direction. Relationships between external- and internal-workload variables in the team and relative to playing position were examined. Results: Across the team, the strongest external workloads that correlated with summated HR zones were PL (r = .65), COD (r = .64), ACCEL (r = .61), and DECEL (r = .61). The strongest external workloads that correlated with sRPE were COD (r = .79), followed by jumps (r = .76), ACCEL (r = .75), and DECEL (r = .75). For all positions, except-goal shooter, the strongest correlation was between PL and sRPE (r = .88–.94). In the goal-shooter position, the strongest correlation was between summated HR zones and DECEL (r = .89). Conclusions: The inertial movement unit-derived external-workload variables are strongly related to common internal-workload variables. In particular, COD and sRPE appear to provide a good monitoring combination of external and internal training loads for elite netball players.

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Aaron T. Scanlan, Benjamin J. Dascombe, Peter R.J. Reaburn and Mark Osborne

Purpose:

The present investigation examined the physiological and performance effects of lower-body compression garments (LBCG) during a one-hour cycling time-trial in well-trained cyclists.

Methods:

Twelve well-trained male cyclists ([mean ± SD] age: 20.5 ± 3.6 years; height: 177.5 ± 4.9 cm; body mass: 70.5 ± 7.5 kg; VO2max: 55.2 ± 6.8 mL·kg−1·min−1) volunteered for the study. Each subject completed two randomly ordered stepwise incremental tests and two randomly ordered one-hour time trials (1HTT) wearing either full-length SportSkins Classic LBCG or underwear briefs (control). Blood lactate concentration ([BLa]), heart rate (HR), oxygen consumption (VO2) and muscle oxygenation (mOxy) were recorded throughout each test. Indicators of cycling endurance performance were anaerobic threshold (AnT) and VO2max values from the incremental test, and mean power (W), peak power (W), and total work (kJ) from the 1HTT Magnitude-based inferences were used to determine if LBCG demonstrated any performance and/or physiological benefits.

Results:

A likely practically significant increase (86%:12%:2%; η2 = 0.6) in power output at AnT was observed in the LBCG condition (CONT: 245.9 ± 55.7 W; LBCG: 259.8 ± 44.6 W). Further, a possible practically significant improvement (78%:19%:3%; η2 = 0.6) was reported in muscle oxygenation economy (W·%mOxy−1) across the 1HTT (mOxy: CONT: 52.2 ± 12.2%; LBCG: 57.3 ± 8.2%).

Conclusions:

The present results demonstrated limited physiological benefits and no performance enhancement through wearing LBCG during a cycling time trial.

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Mohamad S. Motevalli, Vincent J. Dalbo, Reza S. Attarzadeh, Amir Rashidlamir, Patrick S. Tucker and Aaron T. Scanlan

Purpose:

To evaluate anthropometric measures and serum markers of myostatin-pathway activity after different weight-reduction protocols in wrestlers.

Methods:

Subjects were randomly assigned to a gradual-weight-reduction (GWR) or rapid-weight-reduction (RWR) group. Food logs were collected for the duration of the study. Anthropometric measurements and serum samples were collected after an 8-h fast at baseline and after the weight-reduction intervention. Subjects reduced body mass by 4%. The GWR group restricted calories over 12 d, while the RWR group restricted calories over 2 d. A series of 2 × 5 repeated-measures (RM) ANOVAs was conducted to examine differences in nutrient consumption, while separate 2 × 2 RM ANOVAs were conducted to examine differences in anthropometric measures and serum markers. When applicable, Tukey post hoc comparisons were conducted. Significance for all tests was set at P < .05.

Results:

There were no between-groups differences for any anthropometric measure (P > .05). Subjects in both groups experienced a significant reduction in body mass, fat mass, lean mass, and percent body fat (P < .05). There were no between-groups differences in serum markers of myostatin-pathway activity (P > .05), but subjects in the RWR condition experienced a significant increase in serum myostatin (P < .01), a decrease in follistatin (P < .01), and an increase in myostatin-to-follistatin ratio (P < .001).

Conclusion:

Although there were no between-groups differences for any outcome variables, the serum myostatin-to-follistatin ratio was significantly increased in the RWR group, possibly signaling the early stages of skeletal-muscle catabolism.

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Maria C. Madueno, Vincent J. Dalbo, Joshua H. Guy, Kate E. Giamarelos, Tania Spiteri and Aaron T. Scanlan

Purpose: To investigate the physiological and performance effects of active and passive recovery between repeated-change-of-direction sprints. Methods: Eight semiprofessional basketball players (age: 19.9 [1.5] y; stature: 183.0 [9.6] cm; body mass: 77.7 [16.9] kg; body fat: 11.8% [6.3%]; and peak oxygen consumption: 46.1 [7.6] mL·kg−1·min−1) completed 12 × 20-m repeated-change-of-direction sprints (Agility 5-0-5 tests) interspersed with 20 seconds of active (50% maximal aerobic speed) or passive recovery in a randomized crossover design. Physiological and perceptual measures included heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood lactate concentration, and rating of perceived exertion. Change-of-direction speed was measured during each sprint using the change-of-direction deficit (CODD), with summed CODD time and CODD decrement calculated as performance measures. Results: Average heart rate (7.3 [6.4] beats·min−1; P = .010; effect size (ES) = 1.09; very likely) and oxygen consumption (4.4 [5.0] mL·kg−1·min−1; P = .12; ES = 0.77; unclear) were moderately greater with active recovery compared with passive recovery across sprints. Summed CODD time (0.87 [1.01] s; P = .07; ES = 0.76, moderate; likely) and CODD decrement (8.1% [3.7%]; P < .01; ES = 1.94, large; almost certainly) were higher with active compared with passive recovery. Trivial–small differences were evident for rating of perceived exertion (P = .516; ES = 0.19; unclear) and posttest blood lactate concentration (P = .29; ES = 0.40; unclear) between recovery modes. Conclusions: Passive recovery between repeated-change-of-direction sprints may reduce the physiological stress and fatigue encountered compared with active recovery in basketball players.