In sport psychology, there is broad interest in cognitive factors that affect sport performance. The purpose of this research was to examine one such factor, self-talk, in competitive sport performance. Twenty-four junior tennis players were observed during tournament matches. Their observable self-talk, gestures, and match scores were recorded. Players also described their positive, negative, and other thoughts on a postmatch questionnaire. A descriptive analysis of the self-talk and gestures that occurred during competition was generated. It was found that negative self-talk was associated with losing and that players who reported believing in the utility of self-talk won more points than players who did not. These results suggest that self-talk influences competitive sport outcomes. The importance of "believing" in self-talk and the potential motivational and detrimental effects of negative self-talk on performance are discussed.
Judy L. Van Raalte, Britten W. Brewer, Patricia M. Rivera and Albert J. Petitpas
Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France and Albert J. Petitpas
Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.
Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Joseph H. Sklar, Mark H. Pohlman, Robert J. Krushell and Terry D. Ditmar
Carrie B. Scherzer, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Joseph H. Sklar, Mark H. Pohlman, Robert J. Krushell and Terry D. Ditmar
To examine the relationship between self-reported use of psychological skills and rehabilitation adherence.
Prospective correlational design.
Outpatient physical-therapy clinic specializing in sports medicine.
Fifty-four patients (17 women and 37 men) undergoing rehabilitation after anterior-cruciate-ligament reconstruction.
Main Outcome Measures:
An abbreviated version of the Sports Injury Survey (Ievleva & Orlick, 1991) was administered approximately 5 weeks after surgery to assess use of goal setting, imagery, and positive self-talk. Four adherence measures were obtained during the remainder of rehabilitation: attendance at rehabilitation sessions, practitioner ratings of patient adherence at rehabilitation sessions, patient self-reports of home exercise completion, and patient self-reports of home cryotherapy completion.
Goal setting was positively associated with home exercise completion and practitioner adherence ratings. Positive self-talk was positively correlated with home exercise completion.
Use of certain psychological skills might contribute to better adherence to sport-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Albert J. Petitpas, Gregory S. Kolt, Tania Pizzari, Adrian M.M. Schoo, Kelley Emery and Stephen J. Hatten
Adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation might influence outcomes.
To examine the construct validity and interrater agreement of a measure of adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation.
Repeated-measures in both study 1 and study 2.
43 student rehabilitation practitioners in study 1 and 12 patients undergoing rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in study 2.
Participants in study 1 rated the adherence of a simulated videotaped patient exhibiting high, moderate, and low adherence. Two certified athletic trainers rated the adherence of patients at 4 consecutive appointments in study 2.
Main Outcome Measure:
The Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.
In study 1, adherence ratings increased in a linear fashion across the 3 levels of adherence, and r WG(J) and rater-agreement-index values ranging from .84 to .95 were obtained. In study 2, the rater-agreement index was .94.
Strong support was found for the construct validity and interrater agreement of the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.