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Ursula F. Julio, Valéria L.G. Panissa, João V. Esteves, Rubiana L. Cury, Marcus F. Agostinho and Emerson Franchini

Purpose:

To estimate the contribution of the 3 energy systems to simulated judo matches.

Methods:

Twelve judo athletes (18 ± 1 y, 175.1 ± 5.3 cm, 74.3 ± 10.5 kg, 11.7% ± 1.5% body fat, 8 ± 2 y of practice) performed 5 combats with different durations (1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 min), against the same opponent, on different days and blinded to the duration. The estimated energy contributions for the oxidative, glycolytic, and ATP-PCr systems were calculated based on oxygen uptake (V̇O2) during activity, Delta of lactate, and the fast phase of excess V ̇ O2, respectively. Analysis of mixed models for repeated measures was used to compare the contribution of the 3 energy systems and different durations of judo matches, followed by a post hoc Bonferroni test.

Results:

The oxidative system’s contribution (70%) was higher than those of the glycolytic (8%; P < .001) and ATP-PCr (21%; P < .001) energy systems (in all durations), and the ATP-PCr contribution was higher than that of the glycolytic energy system (up to 3 min). In addition, during the match there was an increase in the oxidative (from 50% to 81%; P < .001), a decrease in the ATP-PCr (from 40% to 12%; P < .001), and maintenance of the glycolytic contributions (between 6% and 10%).

Conclusions:

There is a predominance of the oxidative system to supply the energy cost of judo matches from the first minute of combat up to the end, compared with the anaerobic systems.

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Emerson Franchini, Monica Y. Takito, Rodrigo M. da Silva, Seihati A. Shiroma, Lance Wicks and Ursula F. Julio

Purpose:

To determine the optimal interval between competitions for success in the different events of the judo world tour.

Methods:

A total of 20,916 female and 29,900 male competition participations in the judo world-tour competitions held between January 2009 and December 2015 were analyzed, considering the dependent variable, winning a medal, and the independent variables, levels of competition.

Results:

There was an increased probability of winning a medal when the interval was in the 10- to 13-wk range for both male and female athletes competing at Grand Prix, Continental-Championship, and World-Championship events, whereas for Grand Slam, only men had an increased probability of winning a medal in this interval range. Furthermore, men had increased probability of podium positions in Continental Championship, World Master, and Olympic Games when the interval was longer than 14 wk.

Conclusion:

Optimal interval period between successive competitions varies according to competition level and sex; shorter intervals (6–9 wk) were better for female athletes competing at the lowest competition level (Continental Open), but for most of the competitions, the 10- to 13-wk interval was detected as optimal for both male and female athletes (Grand Prix, Continental Championship, and World Championship), whereas for the ranking-based qualified male competitions (ie, Masters and Olympic Games), a longer period (>14 wk) is needed.

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Matheus Hausen, Pedro Paulo Soares, Marcus Paulo Araujo, Débora Esteves, Hilbert Julio, Roberto Tauil, Marcus Junca, Flávia Porto, Emerson Franchini, Craig Alan Bridge and Jonas Gurgel

Purpose: To propose and validate new taekwondo-specific cardiopulmonary exercise tests. Methods: Twelve male national-level taekwondo athletes (age 20 [2] y, body mass 67.5 [5.7] kg, height 175 [8] cm, and training experience 7 [3] y) performed 3 separate exercise tests in a randomized counterbalanced order: (1) a treadmill running cardiopulmonary exercise test (CPET) and (2) continuous and (3) interval taekwondo-specific cardiopulmonary exercise tests (cTKDet and iTKDet, respectively). The CPET was administered using an individualized ramp protocol. Taekwondo tests comprised sequences of turning kicks performed on a stationary target. The impacts were recorded via an electronic scoring sensor used in official competition. Stages on the cTKDet and iTKDet lasted 1 min and progressively reduced the kick interval duration. These were guided by a sound signal, starting with 4.6 s between kicks and reducing by 0.4 s every minute until the test ended. Oxygen uptake (V˙O2), heart rate (HR), capillary blood lactate, and ratings of perceived exertion were measured. Results: Modest differences were identified in V˙O2max between the tests (F 2,22 = 3.54; P = .046; effect size [ES] = 0.16). Maximal HR (HRmax) was higher during both taekwondo tests (F 2,22 = 14.3; P = .001; ES = 1.14) compared with CPET. Specific tests also yielded higher responses in the first ventilatory threshold V˙O2 (F 2,22 = 6.5; P = .04; ES = 0.27) and HR (F 2,22 = 12.3; P < .001; ES = 1.06), and HR at the second ventilatory threshold (F 2,22 = 5.7; P = .02; ES = 0.72). Conclusions: Taekwondo-specific cardiopulmonary tests enhance the validity of some cardiopulmonary responses and might therefore be considered to optimize routine diagnostic testing and training prescription for this athletic group.

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Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro

Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation after 9 months of martial arts practice in healthy children and adolescents. Method: The study included 59 children and adolescents who were divided into 3 groups: judo, Muay Thai, and control. Heart rate variability was measured by a heart rate monitor, model Polar RS800CX. The intervention occurred twice a week on nonconsecutive days, lasting 60 minutes each session. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to compare participants at baseline. The comparisons between groups at baseline and after the intervention were carried out by a 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures. Results : After 9 months of intervention, significant increases were observed for root mean square successive differences, with higher values post compared with baseline (19.5%; P = .04). For SD1, an interaction effect was observed, with increased posttraining values compared with baseline (24.1%; P = .04) for the judo group. Qualitative analysis of the Poincaré plot showed greater dispersion of RR intervals, mainly beat to beat, after the judo intervention compared with the baseline. The Muay Thai and control groups presented no improvement. Conclusion : After 9 months of intervention, there were increases in cardiac autonomic modulation of children and adolescents participating in judo training. The practice of martial arts, such as judo, can be encouraged from an early age to improve cardiovascular system functioning, possibly providing protection against cardiovascular problems.