Purpose: The present study examined various accelerometer nonwear definitions and their impact on detection of sedentary time using different ActiGraph models, filters, and axes. Methods: In total, 61 youth (34 children and 27 adolescents; aged 5–17 y) wore a 7164 and GT3X+ ActiGraph on a hip-worn belt during a 90-minute structured sedentary activity. Data from GT3X+ were downloaded using the Normal filter (N) and low-frequency extension (LFE), and vertical axis (V) and vector magnitude (VM) counts were examined. Nine nonwear definitions were applied to the 7164 model (V), GT3X+LFE (V and VM), and GT3X+N (V and VM), and sedentary estimates were computed. Results: The GT3X+LFE-VM was most sensitive to movement and could accurately detect observed sedentary time with the shortest nonwear definition of 20 minutes of consecutive “0” counts for children and 40 minutes for adolescents. The GT3X+N-V was least sensitive to movement and required longer definitions to detect observed sedentary time (40 min for children and 90 min for adolescents). VM definitions were 10 minutes shorter than V definitions. LFE definitions were 40 minutes shorter than N definitions in adolescents. Conclusion: Different nonwear definitions are needed for children and adolescents and for different model-filter-axis types. Authors need to consider nonwear definitions when comparing prevalence rates of sedentary behavior across studies.
Kelli L. Cain, Edith Bonilla, Terry L. Conway, Jasper Schipperijn, Carrie M. Geremia, Alexandra Mignano, Jacqueline Kerr and James F. Sallis
Rachel A. Millstein, Joe Strobel, Jacqueline Kerr, James F. Sallis, Gregory J. Norman, Nefertiti Durant, Sion Harris and Brian E. Saelens
This study examined the contributions of home, school, and neighborhood factors related to youth physical activity (PA). Adolescents (ages 12–18; N = 137) and parents of younger children (ages 5–11; N = 104) from three US metropolitan areas completed surveys. Youth PA was estimated from six items assessing overall physical activity. Bivariate analyses between environment factors and PA
James F. Sallis, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan A. Carlson, Gregory J. Norman, Brian E. Saelens, Nefertiti Durant and Barbara E. Ainsworth
Neighborhood environment attributes of walkability and access to recreation facilities have been related to physical activity and weight status, but most self-report environment measures are lengthy. The 17-item PANES (Physical Activity Neighborhood Environment Scale) was developed to be comprehensive but brief enough for use in multipurpose surveys. The current study evaluated test-retest and alternate-form reliability of PANES items compared with multi-item subscales from the longer NEWS-A (Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale—Abbreviated).
Participants were 291 adults recruited from neighborhoods that varied in walkability in 3 US cities. Surveys were completed twice with a 27-day interval.
Test-retest ICCs for PANES items ranged from .52 to .88. Spearman correlations for the PANES single item vs NEWS-A subscale comparisons ranged from .27 to .81 (all P < .01).
PANES items related to land use mix, residential density, pedestrian infrastructure, aesthetic qualities, and safety from traffic and crime were supported by correlations with NEWS-A subscales. Access to recreation facilities and street connectivity items were not supported. The brevity of PANES allows items to be included in studies or surveillance systems to expand knowledge about neighborhood environments.
Megan E. Grimstvedt, Jacqueline Kerr, Sara B. Oswalt, Donovan L. Fogt, Tiffanye M. Vargas-Tonsing and Zenong Yin
This study tested the effectiveness of a stair use promotion strategy in visible and hidden stairwells during intervention and post intervention follow up.
A quasi-experimental study design was used with a 1 week baseline, a 3 week intervention, and post intervention at 2 and 4 weeks in 4 university buildings in San Antonio, Texas with stairwells varying in visibility. Participants were students, faculty, staff, and visitors to the 4 buildings. A total of 8431 observations were made. The intervention incorporated motivational signs with direction to nearby stairwells placed by elevators to promote stair use. Stair and elevator use was directly observed and recorded. Logistic regression analyses were used to test whether stair versus elevator use varied by intervention phase and stairwell visibility.
Stair use increased significantly (12% units) during the intervention period and remained above baseline levels during post intervention follow-up. At baseline, visible stairs were 4 times more likely to be used than hidden stairs; however, the increase in stair use during intervention was similar in both types of stairwells.
Motivational and directional signage can significantly increase stair use on a university campus. Furthermore, stairwell visibility is an important aspect of stair use promotion.
Simon Marshall, Jacqueline Kerr, Jordan Carlson, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Ruth Patterson, Kari Wasilenko, Katie Crist, Dori Rosenberg and Loki Natarajan
The purpose of this study was to compare estimates of sedentary time on weekdays vs. weekend days in older adults and determine if these patterns vary by measurement method. Older adults (N = 230, M = 83.5, SD = 6.5 years) living in retirement communities completed a questionnaire about sedentary behavior and wore an ActiGraph accelerometer for seven days. Participants engaged in 9.4 (SD = 1.5) hr per day of accelerometer-measured sedentary time, but self-reported engaging in 11.4 (SD = 4.9) hr per day. Men and older participants had more accelerometer-measured sedentary time than their counterparts. The difference between accelerometer-measured weekday and weekend sedentary time was nonsignificant. However, participants self-reported 1.1 hr per day more sedentary time on weekdays compared with weekend days. Findings suggest self-reported but not accelerometer-measured sedentary time should be investigated separately for weekdays and weekend days, and that self-reports may overestimate sedentary time in older adults.
Sheri J. Hartman, Catherine R. Marinac, Lisa Cadmus-Bertram, Jacqueline Kerr, Loki Natarajan, Suneeta Godbole, Ruth E. Patterson, Brittany Morey and Dorothy D. Sears
Background: Sedentary behavior is associated with increased risk of poor outcomes in breast cancer survivors, but underlying mechanisms are not well understood. This pilot study explored associations between different aspects of sedentary behaviors (sitting, prolonged sitting, sit-to-stand transitions, and standing) and breast cancer risk-related biomarkers in breast cancer survivors (n = 30). Methods: Sedentary behavior variables were objectively measured with thigh-worn activPALs. Breast cancer risk-related biomarkers assessed were C-reactive protein (CRP), insulin, and homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and were measured in fasting plasma samples. Linear regression models were used to investigate associations between sedentary behavior variables and biomarkers (log CRP, insulin, and HOMA-IR). Results: Sit-to-stand transitions were significantly associated with insulin resistance biomarkers (P < .05). Specifically, each 10 additional sit-to-stand transitions per day was associated with a lower fasting insulin concentration (β = −5.52; 95% CI, −9.79 to −1.24) and a lower HOMA-IR value (β = −0.22; 95% CI, −0.42 to −0.03). Sit-to-stand transitions were not significantly associated with CRP concentration (P = .08). Total sitting time, long sitting bouts, and standing time were not significantly associated with CRP, insulin, or HOMA-IR (P > .05). Conclusions: Sit-to-stand transitions may be an intervention target for reducing insulin resistance in breast cancer survivors, which may have favorable downstream effects on cancer prognosis.
Stephanie Kneeshaw-Price, Brian Saelens, James Sallis, Karen Glanz, Lawrence Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Peggy Hannon, David Grembowski, KC Gary Chan and Kelli Cain
Knowledge of where children are active may lead to more informed policies about how and where to intervene and improve physical activity. This study examined where children aged 6–11 were physically active using time-stamped accelerometer data and parent-reported place logs and assessed the association of physical-activity location variation with demographic factors. Children spent most time and did most physical activity at home and school. Although neighborhood time was limited, this time was more proportionally active than time in other locations (e.g., active 42.1% of time in neighborhood vs. 18.1% of time at home). Children with any neighborhood-based physical activity had higher average total physical activity. Policies and environments that encourage children to spend time outdoors in their neighborhoods could result in higher overall physical activity.
Christina M. Thornton, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Jacqueline Kerr, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis
The after-school period provides an opportune context for adolescent physical activity. This study examined how characteristics of after-school recreation environments related to adolescent physical activity.
Participants were 889 adolescents aged 12 to 17 (mean = 14.1, SD = 1.4) from 2 US regions. Adolescents reported on whether their school offered after-school supervised physical activity, access to play areas/fields, and presence of sports facilities. Outcomes were accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity, reported physical activity on school grounds during nonschool hours, attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity excluding school physical education, and BMI-for-age z-score. Mixed regression models adjusted for study design, region, sex, age, ethnicity, vehicles/licensed drivers in household, and distance to school.
School environment variables were all significantly associated with self-reported physical activity on school grounds during non-school hours (P < .001) and attainment of 60 minutes of daily physical activity (P < .05). Adolescents’ accelerometer-measured after-school physical activity was most strongly associated with access to supervised physical activity (P = .008).
Policies and programs that provide supervised after-school physical activity and access to play areas, fields, and sports facilities may help adolescents achieve daily physical activity recommendations.
Kavita A. Gavand, Kelli L. Cain, Terry L. Conway, Brian E. Saelens, Lawrence D. Frank, Jacqueline Kerr, Karen Glanz and James F. Sallis
Background: To examine relations between parents’ perceived neighborhood recreation environments and multiple measures of adolescent physical activity (PA). Methods: Participants (N = 928; age 14.1 [1.4] y, 50.4% girls, and 33.4% nonwhite/Hispanic) and their parents were recruited. Teen moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) was assessed with 7-day accelerometry. Self-reported total PA, PA near home, and PA at recreation locations were also assessed. Proximity of home to 8 types of recreation facilities was reported by parents. Mixed-model linear regressions relating environments to various measures of PA were adjusted for demographics and neighborhood clustering. Results: Perceiving more availability of recreation facilities around home was related to higher reports of days per week with 60+ minutes of PA (b = 0.153; P < .05), reported PA time near home (b = 0.152; P < .001), PA time at recreation facilities (b = 0.161; P < .001), accelerometer-measured total MVPA (b = 1.741; P < .05), and nonschool MVPA (b = 1.508; P < .01). Adolescents living in lowest quintile of recreation facility availability averaged 27.6 (3.2) minutes per day of total MVPA versus 49.8 (3.5) minutes per day for those living in highest quintile. Conclusions: Adolescents living in neighborhoods that parents reported having more availability of recreation facilities around homes had higher activity across 5 indicators of PA.
Lesley Steinman, Mark Doescher, David Levinger, Cynthia Perry, Louise Carter, Amy Eyler, Semra Aytur, Angie L.I. Cradock, Kelly R. Evenson, Katie Heinrich, Jacqueline Kerr, Jill Litt, Yucel Severcan and Carolyn Voorhees
Recent research demonstrates the importance of targeting the built environment to support individual physical activity, particularly for people experiencing health disparities. Master plans to promote biking and/or pedestrians (BPMPs) are a potential method for environmental change. This descriptive study aims to provide a snapshot of plan attributes and better understand demographic, social and transportation characteristics of communities with BPMPs.
We collected a census sample of BPMPs from 4 states. Population and commuting data were obtained from national statistics.
294 master plans were included, with most plans representing municipalities. 62% of plans targeted biking only, one-fifth targeted biking and walking, and 15% targeted walking only. The sampled locations have a similar demographic profile as the overall U.S. for median age and household income, people of color, high school education, and income inequality. The degree of racial diversity of sampled communities is slightly less than the U.S. average and the percentage of people who walk to work were slightly higher.
Given that communities with master plans have a similar profile as the overall U.S., BPMPs could feasibly be spread to communities throughout the country. Further research is planned to describe BPMPs in detail toward informing future plan development.