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Georgia C. Frey, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Steve Hannigan-Downs, Susan L Kasser and Steven O. Skaggs

The purpose of this study was to compare physical fitness levels of trained runners with mild mental retardation (MMR) (7 males and 2 females, age = 28.7 ± 7.4 years, weight = 67.0 ± 11.7 kg) and those without (7 males and 2 females, age = 29.1 ± 7.5, weight = 68.7 ± 8.8 kg). Paired t tests revealed no differences between runners with and without MMR on measures of V̇O2peak (56.3 ± 9.1 vs. 57.7 ± 4.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1), percent body fat (16.6 ± 8.4 vs. 16.6 ± 3.1), and lower back/hamstring flexibility (33.1 ± 10.9 vs. 28.6 ± 10.1 cm). Knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) strength were significantly greater in runners without MMR compared to those with MMR (KF peak torque = 65.7 ±7.9 vs. 48.7 ± 15.7 ft/lb; KE peak torque = 138.5 ± 17.7 vs. 104.4 ± 29.9 ft/lb). It was concluded that trained runners with MMR can achieve high levels of physical fitness comparable to individuals without MMR.

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Heidi I. Stanish, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Christopher C. Draheim and Hans van der Mars

The purpose was to compare two conditions (leader-plus-video, video-only) that involved different levels of support on facilitating engagement in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in adults with mental retardation (MR). Engagement was examined during 10-min aerobic dance sessions conducted 3 days per week over a 10-week experimental period followed by a 4-week maintenance period. The experimental design was single subject reversal (B-A-B-A). Participants were 17 adults (mean age = 42.6 years) with MR (5 females, 12 males) employed at a sheltered workshop. Visual analysis of graphed data revealed no meaningful difference between leader-plus-video and video-only conditions on MVPA engagement. Over 75% of the participants chose to attend each session over the 10-week experiment. Approximately 60% chose to attend during the 4-week maintenance period. Persons who attended, however, did not necessarily engage in MVPA.

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Virginia Foster Chadwick, Chris Hopper, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, John C. Ozmun and April Tripp

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis Gardner, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

A high proportion of individuals with disabilities remain physically inactive. Therefore, this study (web-based survey) investigated the relationships between the Transtheoretical Model (TTM) and physical activity among 224 adults with physical disabilities (M age = 45.4 years, SD = 10.78, females = 71%). Additionally, the most important TTM predictors of the stages of change and physical activity were examined. Standardized self-report scales of the TTM constructs and physical activity were completed. The study findings supported the theorized relationships between the TTM constructs and physical activity. The behavioral and cognitive processes of change distinguished the stages of change. These two constructs and self-efficacy mostly predicted physical activity (R 2 total = .18). The assessment methodology of the TTM constructs needs to be revisited.

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Allen W. Burton, Martin E. Block, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Terry L. Rizzo and Paul R. Surburg

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Walter E. Davis, Barry Lavay, Patrick DiRocco, Richard D. MacNeil, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Wayne W. Munson

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Joonkoo Yun, Jooyeon Jin, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Robert W. Motl

This paper examines the need for interdisciplinary knowledge in the formation of public health models for health-promoting physical activity (PA) for people experiencing disability. PA promotion for people experiencing disability is a multifaceted endeavor and requires navigating a multitude of complicated and interactive factors. Both disability and health are multifaceted constructs and the relationship between PA and health is embedded within a complicated web of interactive influences. PA promotion must consider interacting biological and psychosocial factors within the person and in the sociopolitical environment. Models for research and practice need to evolve from value and belief systems that center on people experiencing disability without stigmatizing them. We argue that interdisciplinary research and practice is needed in navigating the intricacies of PA promotion toward improving the health of people experiencing disability and facilitating inclusion, empowerment, and dignity.

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Maria Kosma, Rebecca Ellis, Bradley J. Cardinal, Jeremy J. Bauer and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The study’s purpose was to identify the mediating role of intention and the stages of change (SOC) in physical activity (PA) over a 6-month period using two models (Theory of Planned Behavior [TPB] and TPB/SOC). Participants were 143 adults with physical disabilities (70.68% response rate; M age = 46.03). The TPB constructs, SOC (time 1), and PA (time 2) were assessed using standardized self-report questionnaires. Based on path analyses, attitude had the highest effect on intention and SOC followed by perceived behavioral control within both well-fit models. The variance in PA explained by the first (TPB) and second (TPB/SOC) models was 16% and 28% respectively. In the just identified model of TPB/SOC, the direct effect of SOC on physical activity remained strong (γsoc.pa = .45) and SOC approached full mediation through attitude. Health promotion interventions need to include both intention and behavior elements (SOC) reinforcing increased PA value and barrier elimination.