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  • Author: Joey C. Eisenmann x
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Megan E. Holmes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Panteleimon Ekkekakis and Douglas Gentile

Background:

We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37).

Methods:

Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Results:

Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r < –.13), and TV and VG were moderately associated with MRS (r = .39 and .43, respectively). Correlations between stress-related variables and MRS ranged from r = .19 to .64. After partitioning by PA, significant correlations were observed in the low PA group between school- and sports-related self-esteem and anxiety with the MRS.

Conclusions:

The results provide suggestive evidence that PA might modify the relationship between stress and MRS in male adolescents.

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Humberto M. Carvalho, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Joey C. Eisenmann and Robert M. Malina

Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14–16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23–3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37–0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46–1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11–16% of explained variance) and training experience (7–11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.

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Heather M. Hayes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Karin Pfeiffer and Joseph J. Carlson

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and joint association of weight status and physical activity on resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein in children.

Methods:

Participants were 174 (71 males, 103 females) children (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.4 yrs). Physical activity was self-reported, body mass index was calculated from measured height and body mass, and blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures. A subset of 91 children had C-reactive protein measured by fingerstick blood sample. Four weight/physical activity groups were created by cross tabulation of weight status classification and physical activity level.

Results:

The prevalence of low physical activity (< 5 days/wk moderate-vigorous activity) did not differ between overweight and normal weight children (50%). Physical activity was not correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.01; P = 0.91) and C-reactive protein was not significantly different between physical activity groups (P = 0.87). Physical activity did not modify the difference in blood pressure or C-reactive protein within weight categories.

Conclusions:

Fatness (specifically overweight and obesity), but not physical activity, was shown to be associated with blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels in children. Physical activity did not attenuate blood pressure or C-reactive protein in overweight and obese children.

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Megan E. Holmes, Jim Pivarnik, Karin Pfeiffer, Kimberly S. Maier, Joey C. Eisenmann and Martha Ewing

Background:

The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

Methods:

Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status.

Results:

Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = –.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04).

Conclusions:

Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.

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Adam D. G. Baxter-Jones, Joey C. Eisenmann and Lauren B. Sherar

The process of maturation is continuous throughout childhood and adolescence. In a biological context, the effects of a child’s maturation might mask or be greater than the effects associated with exposure to exercise. Pediatric exercise scientists must therefore include an assessment of biological age in study designs so that the confounding effects of maturation can be controlled for. In order to understand how maturation can be assessed, it is important to appreciate that 1 year of chronological time is not equivalent to 1 year of biological time. Sex- and age-associated variations in the timing and tempo of biological maturation have long been recognized. This paper reviews some of the possible biological maturity indicators that the pediatric exercise scientist can use. As a result, we recommend that any of the methods discussed could be used for gender-specific comparisons. Gender-comparison studies should either use skeletal age or some form of somatic index.

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Joey C. Eisenmann, Robert M. Malina and Roy J. Shephard

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Heather M. Hayes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Kate A. Heelen, Greg J. Welk and Jared M. Tucker

The purpose of this study was to determine the joint association of fatness and physical activity on resting blood pressure in children. Subjects included 157 children (age 5.5–9.5 years). Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA, min/day), body fatness, and resting blood pressure were measured. Four categories were created by cross tabulation of high/normal levels of fatness and high/low levels of MVPA. There were significant differences in systolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure across the fat/MVPA groups (p < .05). Regardless of participating in an acceptable level of MVPA, overfat children had higher resting systolic blood pressure than normal fat children. MVPA did not significantly attenuate blood pressure within a fat category.

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Gregory J. Welk, Joey C. Eisenmann, Jodee Schaben, Stewart G. Trost and Darren Dale

The unique physical and movement characteristics of children necessitate the development of accelerometer equations and cut points that are population specific. The purpose of this study is to develop an ecologically valid cut point for the Biotrainer Pro monitor that reflects a threshold for moderate-intensity physical activity in elementary school children. A sample of 30 children (ages 8−12) wore a Biotrainer monitor while completing a series of 7 movement tasks (calibration phase) and while participating in an organized group activity (cross-validation phase). Videotapes from each session were processed using a computerized direct-observation technique to provide a criterion measure of physical activity. Analyses involved the use of mixed-model regression and receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curves. The results indicated that a cut point of 4 counts/min provides the optimal balance between the related needs for sensitivity (accurately detecting activity) and specificity (limiting misclassification of activity as inactivity). Results with the cross-validation data demonstrated that this value yielded the best overall kappa (.58) and a high classification agreement (84%) for activity determination. The specificity of 93% demonstrates that the proposed cut point can accurately detect activity; however, the lower sensitivity value of 61% suggests that some minutes of activity might be incorrectly classified as inactivity. The cut point of 4 counts/min provides an ecologically valid cut point to capture physical activity in children using the Biotrainer Pro activity monitor.

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Kyle M. Morrison, Anna Bugge, Bianca El-Naaman, Joey C. Eisenmann, Karsten Froberg, Karin A. Pfeiffer and Lars Bo Andersen

This study examined the interrelationships among physical activity (PA), percent body fat (%BF), and motor performance (MP) in 498 6- to 8-year-old Danish children. PA was assessed by accelerometer, %BF was calculated from skinfolds, and the Koordinations Test für Kinder along with a throwing accuracy test was used to assess MP. PA was not correlated with %BF, but was significantly correlated with MP. The strongest correlations existed between %BF and MP. Low %BF/High PA had higher MP scores compared with High %BF/Low PA, and within the High %BF groups MP was higher in the High PA versus Low PA group. When comparing PA by %BF and MP groups, boys in the Low %BF/High MP had higher PA than both the Low %BF/Low MP and High %BF/Low MP groups. In girls, PA was highest in the High %BF/High MP group. This study highlights the complex interrelationships among PA, %BF, and MP in children and the need to develop fundamental motor skills during childhood.

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Lauren B. Sherar, Sean P. Cumming, Joey C. Eisenmann, Adam D.G. Baxter-Jones and Robert M. Malina

The decline in physical activity (PA) across adolescence is well established but influence of biological maturity on the process has been largely overlooked. This paper reviews the limited number of studies which examine the relationship between timing of biological maturity and PA. Results are generally inconsistent among studies. Other health-related behaviors are also considered in an effort to highlight the complexity of relationships between biological maturation and behavior and to provide future research directions.