The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two different resistance training (RT) systems on oxidative stress biomarkers in older women. Fifty-nine older women (67.9 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Two training groups performed an 8 week RT program either in traditional (TD, n = 20) or a pyramid (PR, n = 20) system 3 times per week, or a control group (CG, n = 19). The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8–12 RM with constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR training consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incremental loads for each set. As compared with the CG, both TD and PR achieved upregulation of the antioxidant system as evidenced by higher (p < .05) values of total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter plasma concentration after intervention (TD= 930.4 ± 160.0 µmolTrolox, PR= 977.8 ± 145.2 µmolTrolox, CG= 794.4 ± 130.2 µmolTrolox). For the protein oxidation adducts, TD and PR presented lower (p < .05) scores compared with CG (TD= 91.2 ± 25.0 µmol/L, PR= 93.0 ± 30.3 µmol/L, CG= 111.0 ± 20.4 µmol/L). However, there were no differences (p < .05) between trained groups in the antioxidant capacity markers and in the protein oxidation adducts markers. The results suggest that 8 weeks of progressive RT promotes an improvement in markers of oxidative stress in older women independent of the load-management RT system.
Alex S. Ribeiro, Rafael Deminice, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Camila S. Padilha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
Alex S. Ribeiro, Matheus A. Nascimento, Brad J. Schoenfeld, João Pedro Nunes, Andreo F. Aguiar, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha, Steven J. Fleck and Edilson S. Cyrino
The main purpose of this study was to compare the effects of resistance training (RT) performed two versus three times per week on phase angle (a cellular health indicator) in older women. A total of 39 women (69.1 ± 5.5 years) were randomly assigned to perform a RT program two (G2X) or three (G3X) days per week for 12 weeks. The RT was a whole-body program (eight exercises, one set, 10–15 repetitions). Phase angle, resistance, reactance, and total body water were assessed by bioimpedance spectroscopy. Intracellular water, reactance, and phase angle increased significantly in G2X (2.1%, 3.0%, and 5.6%, respectively) and G3X (5.0%, 6.9%, and 10.3%, respectively) from pretraining to posttraining, with no significant difference between groups. Bioimpedance resistance decreased similarly in both groups (G2X = −1.7% vs. G3X = −3.2%). We conclude that a single set RT program with a frequency of 2 days per week may be sufficient to promote an improvement in cellular health in older women.
Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of protein intake beyond habitual intakes associated with resistance training on metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related parameters, isokinetic strength, and body composition in health older women. A total of 30 older women (68.8 ± 4.3 years) participated in this investigation and were assigned to receive 35 g of whey protein or placebo combined with resistance training, over 12-weeks, three times per week. Blood samples, blood pressure, dietary intake, strength, and body composition were assessed before and after the intervention period. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied for comparisons. Both groups improved the skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, resistance, reactance, and MetS Z-score risk. However, the improvements in skeletal muscle mass, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk were significantly greater in protein group when compared with control group. Moreover, protein group significantly decreased %body fat when compared with control group. Higher protein intake combined with resistance training promoted greater improvements in skeletal muscle mass, %body fat, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk in older women.
Chris Riddoch, Dawn Edwards, Angie Page, Karsten Froberg, Sigmund A. Anderssen, Niels Wedderkopp, Søren Brage, Ashley R. Cooper, Luis B. Sardinha, Maarike Harro, Lena Klasson-Heggebø, Willem van Mechelen, Colin Boreham, Ulf Ekelund, Lars Bo Andersen and The European Youth Heart Study Team
The aim of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS) is to establish the nature, strength, and interactions between personal, environmental, and lifestyle influences on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in European children.
The EYHS is an international study measuring CVD risk factors, and their associated influences, in children. Relationships between these independent factors and risk of disease will inform the design of CVD interventions in children. A minimum of 1000 boys and girls ages 9 and 15 y were recruited from four European countries—Denmark, Estonia, Norway, and Portugal. Variables measured included physical, biochemical, lifestyle, psychosocial, and sociodemographic data.
Of the 5664 children invited to participate, 4169 (74%) accepted. Response rates for most individual tests were moderate to high. All test protocols were well received by the children.
EYHS protocols are valid, reliable, acceptable to children, and feasible for use in large, field-based studies.