The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron and Mark R. Beauchamp
Erica L. Carleton, Julian Barling, Amy M. Christie, Melissa Trivisonno, Kelsey Tulloch and Mark R. Beauchamp
Based on the contention that leadership has sustained effects on followers even after the leader–follower relationship has ended, we investigated the career-long effects of abusive coach leadership on athlete aggression and task performance. Abusive leadership scores were derived from ratings by two independent raters’ evaluations of coaches’ biographies, and athlete aggression and task performance data were derived from objective sources. Data were obtained from players (N = 693) and coaches (N = 57) involved in the National Basketball Association (NBA) between the 2000–2001 and 2005–2006 seasons. Controlling for tenure, salary, team winning percentage, and absence due to injuries, multilevel modeling showed that exposure to abusive leadership influenced both the trajectory of psychological aggression and task performance over players’ careers. These findings suggest that the effects of abusive leadership extend far longer than currently acknowledged, thus furthering our understanding of the nature and effects of abusive leadership.
Ben Jackson, Nicholas D. Myers, Ian M. Taylor and Mark R. Beauchamp
This study explored the predictive relationships between students’ (N = 516, M age = 18.48, SD = 3.52) tripartite efficacy beliefs and key outcomes in undergraduate physical activity classes. Students reported their relational efficacy perceptions (i.e., other-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy, or RISE) with respect to their instructor before a class, and instruments measuring self-efficacy, enjoyment, and effort were administered separately following the class. The following week, an independent observer assessed student achievement. Latent variable path analyses that accounted for nesting within classes revealed (a) that students were more confident in their own ability when they reported favorable other-efficacy and RISE appraisals, (b) a number of direct and indirect pathways through which other-efficacy and RISE predicted adaptive in-class outcomes, and (c) that self-efficacy directly predicted enjoyment and effort, and indirectly predicted achievement. Although previous studies have examined isolated aspects within the tripartite framework, this represents the first investigation to test the full range of direct and indirect pathways associated with the entire model.
Katie L. Morton, Julian Barling, Ryan E. Rhodes, Louise C. Mâsse, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp
We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (M age = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
A. Justine Dowd, Toni Schmader, Benjamin D. Sylvester, Mary E. Jung, Bruno D. Zumbo, Luc J. Martin and Mark R. Beauchamp
The objective of the studies presented in this paper was to examine whether the need to belong can be used to enhance exercise cognitions and behavior. Two studies examined the effectiveness of framing exercise as a means of boosting social skills (versus health benefits) for self-regulatory efficacy, exercise intentions, and (in Study 2) exercise behavior. In Study 1, inactive adults primed to feel a lack of social belonging revealed that this manipulation led to greater self-regulatory efficacy (but not exercise intentions). In Study 2, involving a sample of inactive lonely adults, all participants reported engaging in more exercise; however, those in the social skills condition also reported a greater sense of belonging than those in the health benefits comparison condition. These findings provide an important basis for developing physical activity interventions that might be particularly relevant for people at risk for feeling socially isolated or lonely.
Benjamin D. Sylvester, Martyn Standage, Tavinder K. Ark, Shane N. Sweet, Peter R.E. Crocker, Bruno D. Zumbo and Mark R. Beauchamp
In this study, we examined whether perceived variety in exercise prospectively predicts unique variance in exercise behavior when examined alongside satisfaction of the three basic psychological needs (for competence, relatedness, and autonomy) embedded within self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2002), through the mediating role of autonomous and controlled motivation. A convenience sample of community adults (N = 363) completed online questionnaires twice over a 6-week period. The results of structural equation modeling showed perceived variety and satisfaction of the needs for competence and relatedness to be unique indirect positive predictors of exercise behavior (through autonomous motivation) 6 weeks later. In addition, satisfaction of the need for autonomy was found to negatively predict controlled motivation. Perceived variety in exercise complemented satisfaction of the needs for competence, relatedness, and autonomy in predicting motivation and (indirectly) exercise behavior, and may act as a salient mechanism in the prediction of autonomous motivation and behavior in exercise settings.
Louise C. Mâsse, Teresia M. O’Connor, Andrew W. Tu, Allison W. Watts, Mark R. Beauchamp, Sheryl O. Hughes and Tom Baranowski
The purpose of this study was to compare the physical activity parenting practices (PAPPs) parents report using with the PAPPs incorporated in the published literature.
PAPPs in the literature were identified by reviewing the content of 74 published PAPP measures obtained from current systematic reviews supplemented with a literature search. The types of PAPPs used by parents were identified by surveying a stratified sample of 134 Canadian and US parents of 5- to 12 year-old children. Items from the literature and parent responses were coded using the same coding scheme. Differences between the PAPPs emphasized by the parents and the literature were examined.
Parents significantly emphasized different issues than what is measured in the literature (P < .001). Parents emphasized more control (13.6% vs. 6.9%), modeling and teaching (13.2% vs. 9.2%), and structural strategies (32.2% vs. 28.6%) and less autonomy support (11.8% vs. 14.0%), logistical support (9.9% vs. 12.8%), and responsiveness strategies (19.3% vs. 28.5%).
Physical activity practices most often employed by parents are not the ones emphasized in current measures. The extent to which putting more emphasis on the areas identified by parents will increase the predictive validity of the measures warrants further examination.