This study investigated the movement preparation (reaction time) and movement execution (movement time) of children with and without ADHD by manipulating the uncertainty of occurrence. Participants performed a seated lower extremity choice response time protocol, which contained either 10% catch trials or 30% catch trials along with 27 empirical stimuli to one of three target directions. Results indicated that children with ADHD were significantly slower at processing lower extremity movements than their peers for the condition with increased number of catch trials, but not the condition with fewer catch trials. These findings suggest that children with ADHD are more affected by the uncertainty of an empirical stimulus during the preparation phase of a movement response than their age-matched peers are.
Scott J. Pedersen and Paul R. Surburg
Colleen A. Lewis and Paul R. Surburg
The purpose of this study was to determine if adults with spastic diplegic cerebral palsy (CP) display midline crossing inhibition (MCI) in the lower extremity as measured by choice reaction time (CRT) and movement time (MT) as compared to participants without disabilities. Midline crossing ability was assessed in the standing position using a protocol developed by Eason and Surburg (1993). Both groups were significantly slower in the contralateral direction as compared to the ipsilateral and midline direction as measured by CRT. Results revealed that adults with CP were significantly slower in CRT and MT tasks as compared to participants without disabilities. Assessment of midline crossing ability may provide useful information related to assessment and subsequent treatment as individuals with CP age.
David L. Porretta, Paul R. Surburg and Paul Jansma
Graduates from four adapted physical education doctoral programs (1980-1999) within the United States were surveyed to determine their perceptions on the extent to which they attained published competencies in the areas of research and adapted physical education. A survey was mailed to 109 doctoral program graduates. A total of 99 surveys (91%) were usable for data analysis. Competency data were analyzed separately across two 10-year time periods (1980-1989; 1990-1999). Respondents’ perceptions improved significantly in cumulative research competency scores from the first to the second time period. Responses for adapted physical education competencies were similar across both time periods. Follow-up analyses on responses for each of the separate 18 research and 20 adapted physical education competency statements resulted in significant improvement from 1980-1989 to 1990-1999 for eight research competencies and one adapted physical education competency. Results have implications for the future of adapted physical education doctoral training in the United States and beyond.
Paul R. Surburg, David L. Porretta and Vins Sutlive
The purpose of this study was to examine the role of imagery practice as supplementary practice in the performance of a throwing task. A secondary purpose was to ascertain if different cognitive demands of a motor task affected the use of this supplementary practice. Forty adolescents with mild mental retardation were randomly assigned to the following groups: low cognitive loading-physical practice, low cognitive loading-imagery and physical practice, high cognitive loading-physical practice, high cognitive loading-imagery and physical practice. Subjects engaged in seven practice sessions during which performance scores of a throwing task were recorded. Groups supplemented with imagery practice were superior in performance to nonimagery groups. A higher cognitive loading of the task did not enhance the use of this type of supplementary practice more than a lower loading. The results of this study reflect the efficacy of imagery practice as a means to improve motor performance of students with mild mental retardation.
Gary Kamen, Ruth V. Russell and Paul R. Surburg
Stuart J. Schleien, Paul R. Surburg and Ted Tedrick
William R. Forbus, William Merriman, John C. Ozmun, Terry L. Rizzo and Paul R. Surburg
Dwan Bridges, Sherry L. Folsom-Meek, John C. Ozmun, Kathleen A. Stanton and Paul R. Surburg
Scott J. Pedersen, Paul R. Surburg, Matthew Heath and David M. Koceja
The purpose was to investigate central and peripheral processing mechanisms through the use of electromyography (EMG) to determine differences between the performance of children with and without ADHD on a lower extremity choice response time task. Sixteen children with ADHD were tested on and off medication along with 19 children without ADHD. For premotor time, the comparison group performed significantly faster than children with ADHD. The longer latencies exhibited in central processing of children with ADHD were related to midline crossing inhibition (MCI). Medication improved the speed of processing for children with ADHD, but did not negate MCI.