An A-B-A-B withdrawal design was used to evaluate whether accountability, in the form of public posting, was effective in improving football players’ performance in successfully blocking the forward momentum of the defense and in running routes to a criterion at, or greater than, 90% correct. Five wide receivers on a college football team participated in the study. Data were collected during practice sessions and weekly games. The players’ game performance was not intervened on and served as a measure of both the generality of the intervention and as a product measure of the practice performance. The data show that during public posting the players’ performances met or exceeded the criterion established for practices and that this criterion performance generalized to the game setting. These results support previous findings on tasks and accountability. Moreover, the public posting intervention was easy to implement by the coaches and welcomed by the players.
Phillip Ward, Shannon Smith and Tom Sharpe
Tom Sharpe, Monica Fabian Lounsbery, Cindy Golden and Chris Deibler
Collaboration among teacher educators and practicing teachers is currently a popular education reform strategy. Two matched undergraduate cohorts, one prepared in a Professional Development School (PDS) collaborative, were followed over a 5-year period to determine the benefits of one collaborative model. Qualitative data were collected across the 2 undergraduate groups (n = 8, n = 6), two cooperating teacher groups (n = 16, n = 12), two public school administrative groups (n = 4, n = 3), and one faculty group (graduate student n = 3, faculty n = 3). Observational data were also collected for each undergraduate cohort, representing practicum, student teaching, and inservice teaching. Qualitative data over the 5-year study period showed trends from apprehension to receptivity and recommitment to the teacher education process for all collaborative participants. While not directly attributable to the collaboration model alone, exposed undergraduates and their students also demonstrated marked changes in select daily practices correlated with effective instruction. Challenges and implications for research on collaborative activities are last discussed.
Tom Sharpe, Hosung So, Hasan Mavi and Seth Brown
Based on sequential behavior analysis (SBA) approaches to clinical practice activities (Sharpe, Lounsbery, & Bahls, 1997) and on results from school-university collaboration approaches to teacher education (Sharpe, Lounsbery, Golden, & Deibler, 1999), this study analyzed the effects of different supervisory personnel and practice-teaching settings on the relative effectiveness of SBA feedback and goal-setting practices. Teaching performances of two matched groups of undergraduates (N = 4) were observed. An A-B-A-C multiple baseline design with a treatment reversal across participants was used. The B-phase consisted of school-based practice teaching, the C-phase consisted of peer-based practice teaching, and the multiple baseline represented the differing times in which the same SBA feedback treatment was administered. Results demonstrated substantial improvement in select teacher and student practices in the school-based setting but a limited effect in the peer-based setting. Participant response data provided additional support for school-based activities. This study endorses a collaborative field-based approach to teacher education and contradicts the literature in nonsupport.
Tom Sharpe, Rob Spies, Dick Newman and Donna Spickelmier-Vallin
This paper describes the effects of two instructional strategies on (a) the accuracy of self-monitoring by in-service teachers, and (b) the resulting changes in their daily teaching practices. Independent recordings of teacher and student practices were first compared to teacher self-ratings. Two self-monitoring instructional procedures were then introduced to determine their effectiveness in improving the accuracy of the teachers’ self-perceptions of their classroom practices. A single-subject A-B-A-C design was used to document procedural effectiveness. Results indicated (a) the utility of a behavioral systems observational approach for describing daily classroom activity; (b) the superior effectiveness of verbal and videotape feedback, when compared to verbal only, in facilitating self-monitoring accuracy; and (c) a positive effect of improved self-monitoring accuracy on teacher and student practices related to subject matter learning. Results suggest incorporating the use of self-monitoring accuracy as a facilitating component to the teacher education process.