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  • Author: Craig R. Denegar x
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Abby I. Gordon, Lindsay J. DiStefano, Craig R. Denegar, Rosemary B. Ragle and Jeremy R. Norman

Context:

Lower extremity injuries in women’s basketball players are generally presented as seasonal team incidence. Available data were reported by team athletic trainers to overseeing bodies yielding estimates of injury rates as a percentage of all injuries sustained. By summarizing career incidence of women’s basketball players’ injuries, a new perspective indicating potential risk of injury can be considered.

Objectives:

To summarize the career incidence of lower extremity injuries in intercollegiate and professional women’s basketball players, examine the effect of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injury on professional basketball players’ career longevity, and explore the relationship between ankle sprains and knee injuries in this population.

Design:

Survey.

Participants:

246 elite-level women’s basketball players.

Outcome Measures:

Career incidence of lower extremity injury, professional career length, relationship between history of ankle sprain and ACL injury frequency calculations, and chi-square statistics. Results: Seventy-four of 85 (87.06%) professional Women’s National Basketball Association (WNBA) and 172/179 (96.09%) available collegiate Big East Conference (BEC) women’s basketball players completed the survey. Ankle sprains were the most frequently reported injury with 170/246 (69.11%) participants indicating at least one during their career. Patellar tendinopathy (28.46%), meniscal injury (22.76%), and ACL tear (21.54%) were also common. Professional career length in participants with an ACL reconstruction averaged 6.11 ± 3.20 seasons, more than the 5.70 ± 4.17 seasons reported by those without an ACL injury. Professional participants who did not report an ankle sprain were more likely to report an ACL tear (χ2 = 10.96; p = .000932).

Conclusion:

Summarizing career incidence provides a new perspective of women’s basketball players’ injuries. Ankle sprains and knee injuries were commonly reported, both more frequently than by traditional research methods. These data may assist in developing injury prevention and rehabilitation strategies for injured athletes.

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Katherine Histen, Julia Arntsen, Lauren L’Hereux, James Heeren, Benjamin Wicki, Sterling Saint, Giselle Aerni, Craig R. Denegar and Michael F. Joseph

Context:

Tendon adapts to load through alterations in its composition and mechanical properties. Mechanical adaptation to increased load often involves increases in cross-sectional area (CSA), stiffness, and modulus. Runners exhibit these adaptations.

Objective:

To determine if runners wearing minimalist shoes had larger and stiffer Achilles tendons (AT) than traditionally shod runners.

Design:

Cross-sectional study of well-trained, traditionally and minimally shod runners.

Setting:

Laboratory assessment of trained runners.

Participants:

23 men (11 traditional, 12 minimalist) and 8 women (6 traditional, 2 minimalist). Runners wearing minimalist shoes had 4.2 ± 1.6 y of training experience in minimalist shoes.

Main Outcome Measures:

The authors used diagnostic ultrasound and isokinetic dynamometry to generate a force-elongation curve and its derivatives.

Results:

Minimalist runners had a greater CSA: mean difference (MD) = 9.2 mm2, stiffness (MD = 268.1 N/mm), and modulus (MD = 202.9 MPa). ATs of minimalist runners experienced greater stress (MD 8.6 N/mm2) during maximal voluntary isometric contraction of the plantar-flexor muscles due to greater force of contraction (MD 798.9 N).

Conclusion:

The AT in minimalist runners adapts by increasing size, stiffness, and modulus, which is consistent with our understanding of mechanical adaptation of tendon to increased loading. Increased stress to the AT likely requires a slow transition to minimalist running to allow the AT to adapt without evidence of injury.

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Abbis H. Jaffri, Thomas M. Newman, Brent I. Smith, Giampietro L. Vairo, Craig R. Denegar, William E. Buckley and Sayers J. Miller

Context: The Dynamic Leap Balance Test (DLBT) is a new dynamic balance task that requires serial changes in base of support with alternating limb support and recovery of dynamic stability, as compared with the Y modification of the Star Excursion Balance Test (Y-SEBT), which assesses dynamic stability over an unchanging base of support. Objectives: To assess the dynamic balance performance in 2 different types of dynamic balance tasks, the DLBT and the SEBT, in subjects with unilateral chronic ankle instability (CAI) when compared with matched controls. The authors hypothesized that the DLBT score would significantly differ between the CAI involved and uninvolved limbs (contralateral and healthy matched) and demonstrate a modest (r = .50) association with the SEBT scores. Design: Case-control. Setting: Controlled laboratory. Participants: A total of 36 physically active adults, 18 with history of unilateral CAI and 18 without history of ankle injury, were enrolled in the study. CAI subjects were identified using the Identification of Functional Ankle Instability questionnaire. Interventions: The DLBT and the SEBT were performed in a randomized order on a randomly selected limb in CAI and healthy subjects. Main Outcome Measures: Time taken to complete the DLBT and the reach distances performed on the SEBT were compared between the CAI and the healthy subjects. Results: There were no statistically significant differences (P < .05) in SEBT reach distances between groups. The DLBT time was greater (P < .01) for unstable ankles compared with the stable ankle. The authors found no correlation (P > .05) between DLBT time and any of the SEBT reach distances suggesting that the DLBT provides unique information in the assessment of patients with CAI. Conclusion: The DLBT challenges the ability to maintain postural control in CAI subjects differently than the SEBT. There is a need of more dynamic balance assessment tools that are functional and clinically relevant.

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William J. Kraemer, Jill A. Bush, Robbin B. Wickham, Craig R. Denegar, Ana L. Gomez, Lincoln A. Gotshalk, Noel D. Duncan, Jeff S. Volek, Robert U. Newton, Margot Putukian and Wayne J. Sebastianelli

Context:

Prior investigations using ice, massage, or exercise have not shown efficacy in relieving delayed-onset muscle soreness.

Objectives:

To determine whether a compression sleeve worn immediately after maximal eccentric exercise enhances recovery.

Design:

Randomized, controlled clinical study.

Setting:

University sports medicine laboratory.

Participants:

Fifteen healthy, non-strength-trained men, matched for physical criteria, randomly placed in a control group or a continuous compression-sleeve group (CS).

Methods and Measures:

Subjects performed 2 sets of 50 arm curls. 1RM elbow flexion at 60°/s, upper-arm circumference, resting-elbow angle, serum creatine kinase (CK), and perception-of-soreness data were collected before exercise and for 3 days.

Results:

CK was significantly (P < .05) elevated from the baseline value in both groups, although the elevation in the CS group was less. CS prevented loss of elbow extension, decreased subjects’ perception of soreness, reduced swelling, and promoted recovery of force production.

Conclusions:

Compression is important in soft-tissue-injury management.