Cognitive appraisal models of adjustment to sport injury hold that cognitive appraisals of the injury determine emotional responses to the injury, which in turn influence behavioral responses (e.g., adherence to rehabilitation). To test this model, recreational and competitive athletes undergoing rehabilitation following knee surgery (N = 31) appraised their ability to cope with their injury and completed a measure of mood disturbance. Adherence to rehabilitation was measured in terms of attendance at rehabilitation sessions and physical therapist/athletic trainer ratings of patient behavior during rehabilitation sessions. As predicted, cognitive appraisal was associated with emotional disturbance. Emotional disturbance was inversely related to one measure of adherence (attendance) but was unrelated to the other measure of adherence (physical therapist/athletic trainer ratings). The results of this study provide support for cognitive appraisal models and suggest that emotional disturbance may be a marker for poor adherence to sport injury rehabilitation regimens.
Joanne M. Daly, Britton W. Brewer, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas and Joseph H. Sklar
Judy L. Van Raalte, Staci R. Andrews, Allen E. Cornelius, Britton W. Brewer and Albert J. Petitpas
Although graduation rates for intercollegiate student-athletes in the United States have hit record highs in recent years, many student-athletes lag behind their nonathlete peers in terms of career readiness. The purpose of this research was to create and evaluate a theoretically grounded, evidence-based career development workshop for student-athletes. In Study 1, 28 college and university professionals reviewed the Career Self-Exploration for Student-Athletes Workshop Presenter’s Guide and online training videos. Workshop materials were revised based on feedback received. In Study 2, a national sample of 158 student-athletes participated in a controlled field trial. Results indicated that participating in the Career Self-Exploration for Student-Athletes Workshop enhanced student-athletes’ career self-efficacy relative to a control group. These findings suggest that the Career Self-Exploration for Student-Athletes Workshop, available online for free, can be used by campus professionals to enhance career development opportunities for student-athletes across geographic regions and resource availability levels.
Annamari Maaranen, Erica G. Beachy, Judy L. Van Raalte, Britton W. Brewer, Thaddeus J. France and Albert J. Petitpas
Mental blocks, phenomena in which athletes lose the ability to perform previously automatic skills, are well known but poorly understood. Study 1 was designed to assess mental blocks in gymnastics and determine if such blocks are distinct from related conditions, such as slumps, choking, and fear of injury. Mental blocks were reported to have unique characteristics and to affect backward moving skills. Study 2 was a qualitative analysis of the experiences of 5 gymnasts currently experiencing mental blocks on backward moving skills. Such block is called flikikammo and was described as cycling on and off, spreading to other events and skills, affecting visualization, and worsening when performance of the affected skills was forced by coaches. The findings are the first to detail the experience of gymnasts currently experiencing the condition. Additional research may help identify ways to alleviate and/or prevent flikikammo.
Carrie B. Scherzer, Britton W. Brewer, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, Albert J. Petitpas, Joseph H. Sklar, Mark H. Pohlman, Robert J. Krushell and Terry D. Ditmar
To examine the relationship between self-reported use of psychological skills and rehabilitation adherence.
Prospective correlational design.
Outpatient physical-therapy clinic specializing in sports medicine.
Fifty-four patients (17 women and 37 men) undergoing rehabilitation after anterior-cruciate-ligament reconstruction.
Main Outcome Measures:
An abbreviated version of the Sports Injury Survey (Ievleva & Orlick, 1991) was administered approximately 5 weeks after surgery to assess use of goal setting, imagery, and positive self-talk. Four adherence measures were obtained during the remainder of rehabilitation: attendance at rehabilitation sessions, practitioner ratings of patient adherence at rehabilitation sessions, patient self-reports of home exercise completion, and patient self-reports of home cryotherapy completion.
Goal setting was positively associated with home exercise completion and practitioner adherence ratings. Positive self-talk was positively correlated with home exercise completion.
Use of certain psychological skills might contribute to better adherence to sport-injury rehabilitation protocols.
Britton W. Brewer, Joshua B. Avondoglio, Allen E. Cornelius, Judy L. Van Raalte, John C. Brickner, Albert J. Petitpas, Gregory S. Kolt, Tania Pizzari, Adrian M.M. Schoo, Kelley Emery and Stephen J. Hatten
Adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation might influence outcomes.
To examine the construct validity and interrater agreement of a measure of adherence to clinic-based rehabilitation.
Repeated-measures in both study 1 and study 2.
43 student rehabilitation practitioners in study 1 and 12 patients undergoing rehabilitation after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in study 2.
Participants in study 1 rated the adherence of a simulated videotaped patient exhibiting high, moderate, and low adherence. Two certified athletic trainers rated the adherence of patients at 4 consecutive appointments in study 2.
Main Outcome Measure:
The Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.
In study 1, adherence ratings increased in a linear fashion across the 3 levels of adherence, and r WG(J) and rater-agreement-index values ranging from .84 to .95 were obtained. In study 2, the rater-agreement index was .94.
Strong support was found for the construct validity and interrater agreement of the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Adherence Scale.