This study examined the effects of a Rational-Emotive education program on the competitive state anxiety levels and performance of female collegiate gymnasts who were identified as anxiety prone. The gymnasts (n=6) were participants on a Division I gymnastic team during the 1988–89 season. The high-anxious gymnasts were distinguished from their teammates via the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1983) and the Sport Competition Anxiety Test (Martens, 1977) and were interviewed by the investigator prior to competition. They ranged from 17 to 22 years of age (M=19.25 yrs). Additionally, this study analyzed the effects of the education program on performance and thought listening (positive vs. negative self-talk). The results revealed that the Rational–Emotive education program significantly decreased levels of cognitive anxiety in five of the six gymnasts. However, the influential effect of the program on somatic anxiety, performance, and thought listening was not significant.
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P. Kevin Elko and Andrew C. Ostrow
Dana D. Brooks, Edward F. Etzel, and Andrew C. Ostrow
A national survey of the job responsibilities and educational backgrounds of athletic advisors and counselors representing NCAA Division I institutions was conducted. Of the 274 counselors contacted, 134 returned completed questionnaires, representing a 49% return rate. Results of the survey indicated that the majority of advisors and counselors were male, held a master’s degree, and were former athletes in revenue-producing sports. They were employed primarily by athletic departments and provided counseling services, for the most part, to male college athletes involved in revenue-producing sports. Counseling services for college athletes focused primarily on academic matters, with considerably less attention devoted to personal-social or vocational counseling. The implications of these findings toward the provision of future counseling services for college athletes are discussed.
Scott R. Johnson, Andrew C. Ostrow, Frank M. Perna, and Edward F. Etzel
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of group and individual goal setting versus a control condition on bowling performance (BP), personal goals (PG), and perceived goal difficulty (PGD) across five weeks. Novice bowlers (N = 36) were randomly assigned to one of the three goal conditions. Three separate 3 × 5 (Goal Condition × Time: Weeks of Study) repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed significant main effects for time on BP and PGD, and significant group by time interaction effects on BP and PG. The significant group × time interaction effects revealed that participants in the group goal setting condition increased both BP and PG relatively more than participants in the other goal setting conditions. Therefore, group goal setting may enhance performance in an individual sport by potentially increasing personal goal setting under difficult performance demands.
Bart S. Lerner, Andrew C. Ostrow, Michael T. Yura, and Edward F. Etzel
The purposes of this study were to investigate the effects of goal-setting and imagery programs, as well as a combined goal-setting and imagery training program, on the free-throw performance among female collegiate basketball players over the course of an entire season. A multiple-baseline, single-subject A-B-A design was employed in which participants were randomly assigned to one of three interventions: (a) goal-setting (n = 4), (b) imagery (n = 4), or (c) goal-setting and imagery (n = 4). Free-throw data were collected during practice sessions. Data were examined by way of changes in mean, level, trend, latency, and variability between baseline and intervention, and then between intervention and a second baseline phase. Three participants in the goal-setting program, and one participant in the goal-setting and imagery program, increased their mean free-throw performance from baseline to intervention. However, three participants in the imagery program decreased their mean free-throw performance from baseline to intervention. Goal discrepancy scores also were investigated. A positive correlation was found between participants’ free-throw performance and personal goals.