We examine the relative importance of both objective and perceived environmental features for physical activity in older English adults. Self-reported physical activity levels of 8,281 older adults were used to compute volumes of outdoor recreational and commuting activity. Perceptions of neighborhood environment supportiveness were drawn from a questionnaire survey and a geographical information system was used to derive objective measures. Negative binominal regression models were fitted to examine associations. Perceptions of neighborhood environment were more associated with outdoor recreational activity (over 10% change per standard deviation) than objective measures (5–8% change). Commuting activity was associated with several objective measures (up to 16% change). We identified different environmental determinants of recreational and commuting activity in older adults. Perceptions of environmental supportiveness for recreational activity appear more important than actual neighborhood characteristics. Understanding how older people perceive neighborhoods might be key to encouraging outdoor recreational activity.
Yu-Tzu Wu, Natalia R. Jones, Esther M.F. van Sluijs, Simon J. Griffin, Nicholas J. Wareham, and Andrew P. Jones
Marc V. Jones, Andrew M. Lane, Steven R. Bray, Mark Uphill, and James Catlin
The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.