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Why Residuals Are Important in the Self-Efficacy–Performance Relationship Analysis: A Study Across 12 Cycling Sessions

Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler, and Deborah L. Feltz

Background: The positive role of self-efficacy in directing a wide range of health-related interventions has been well documented, including those targeting an increase in physical activity. However, rarely do researchers control the influence of past performance and past self-efficacy perception ratings when exploring the interaction of self-efficacy and performance, allowing for a refined understanding of this relationship and the unique contribution of each factor. Methods: A residualized past performance, residualized self-efficacy hierarchical regression model was used to examine the effect of prior past performance and pre-exercise self-efficacy on performance with a health-related task (12 aerobic exercise cycling sessions). Results: The previous day’s residualized performance was a significant predictor of performance, as was same-day residualized self-efficacy (P < .001). However, residualized self-efficacy became a stronger predictor over time. Conclusions: While maintaining a consistent level of moderate–vigorous physical activity over 12 exercise sessions, participants increased their ratings of task self-efficacy, explaining an increasing portion of the variance in the self-efficacy–performance relationship days 9 to 12.

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The Relationship Between Barrier Self-Efficacy and Physical Activity in Children and Adolescents: A Meta-Analysis

Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger, and Karin A. Pfeiffer

Previous reviews have highlighted the importance of self-efficacy beliefs in maintaining adequate levels of childhood physical activity (PA), but variable findings with different age groups and measures of PA indicate the need to quantify the extant literature. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the relationship between adolescents’ barrier self-efficacy (BSE) and PA behavior using a random-effects model and to examine age and type of PA measurement as potential relationship moderators. A systematic online database review yielded 38 articles up to June 2018. A small to moderate correlation between BSE beliefs and PA was noted, although the variability was considerable. Age and measurement timing were not significant moderators, but the type of measurement was a significant relationship moderator. This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of BSE as a psychosocial correlate to PA behavior in young people. There is a need for further BSE–PA research with attention to measurement technique and developmental differences.

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The Köhler Motivation Gain Effect With Exercise Tasks: A Meta-Analysis

Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Soyeon Ahn, and Deborah L. Feltz

The purpose of this meta-analysis was to examine the Köhler motivation effect in partnered dyads (conjunctive task structure) during exercise. This preregistered meta-analysis followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines and included 19 (total sample size N = 1,912) primary, peer-reviewed research articles that have reported the effectiveness of the Köhler effect paradigm (with a no-partner control condition) in exercise tasks on the outcome variable of intensity or persistence of effort. The overall motivation gain effect was statistically significant, g ¯ ppc = 0 . 91 (SE = 0.12), suggesting a significantly higher performance gain in conjunctive partnered exercise groups compared with individual exercise. The large effect was moderated by the performance-dependent variable (persistence and intensity), mean participant age, and exercise partner type (human and software generated). There appears to be strong support for the Köhler motivation gain paradigm as a potential to help individuals improve their effort in exercise settings.

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Relative Contributions of Handgrip and Individual Finger Strength on Climbing Performance in a Bouldering Competition

Riley R. Stefan, Clayton L. Camic, Garrett F. Miles, Attila J. Kovacs, Andrew R. Jagim, and Christopher M. Hill

Purpose: To determine the relative contributions of handgrip and individual finger strength for the prediction of climbing performance in a bouldering competition. A secondary aim was to examine the influence of body size, bouldering experience, and training habits. Methods: Sixty-seven boulderers (mean [SD], age = 21.1 [4.0] y; body mass = 69.5 [9.8] kg) volunteered for this study. Data collection occurred immediately before an indoor bouldering competition and involved the assessment of handgrip and individual finger maximal force production using an electronic handheld dynamometer. The bouldering competition consisted of 70 routes graded V0 to V8, with higher point values awarded for completing more difficult routes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relative contributions of handgrip and individual finger strengths, body mass, height, bouldering experience, and bouldering frequency to the prediction of performance scores in the competition. Results: Ring finger pinch strength, bouldering experience, and bouldering frequency significantly (P < .05) contributed to the model (R 2 = .373), whereas body mass; height; full handgrip strength, as well as index, middle, and little finger pinch strengths did not. The β weights showed that ring finger pinch strength (β = .430) was the most significant contributor, followed by bouldering experience (β = .331) and bouldering frequency (β = .244). Conclusions: The current findings indicated that trainable factors contributed to the prediction of bouldering performance. These results suggest greater bouldering frequency and experience likely contribute to greater isolated individual finger strength, thereby optimizing preparation for the diverse handholds in competitive rock climbing.