The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of 6 weeks of stretching and moderate-intensity resistance training on older adults’ functional fitness. Twenty-two older adults (69 ± 1 year) participated in a resistance-training program, and 15 (70 ± 4 years) participated in a control group. Training involved 3 sessions per week, each consisting of 1 set of 12–15 repetitions of lower and upper body exercises on resistance machines. Before sessions, participants performed 20 min of stretching exercises. A recently developed test battery (Rikli & Jones, 1999) to assess the physical parameters associated with independent functioning in older adults was performed before and after training. The combined stretching and resistance exercise resulted in significant (p ≤ .008) improvements on all the functional tests except the 6-min walk. The results indicate that moderate-intensity resistance training in conjunction with stretching can improve functional fitness in older adults, enabling them to more easily perform activities of daily living.
Vinicius Cavani, Constance M. Mier, Anthony A. Musto and Nanette Tummers
Jason C. Holmes, Ann L. Gibson, J. Gualberto Cremades and Constance M. Mier
To compare estimates of body density (Db) from air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) with measured and predicted thoracic-gas-volume (TGV) measurements and those from hydrodensitometry (HD) in children.
Seventeen participants (13 male and 4 female; 10.1 ± 2.20 yr, 42.0 ± 15.03 kg, 145.6 ± 17.41 cm, 30.0 ± 8.66 kg/m2) were tested using ADP and HD, with ADP always preceding HD. Db estimates were compared between ADP with measured TGV, ADP with predicted TGV, and the reference measure, HD. Regression analyses were used to assess the accuracy of the ADP methods, and potential bias between the ADP procedures and HD were evaluated using Bland–Altman analyses. The cross-validation criteria described by Lohman for estimating Db relative to HD were used to interpret the results of the study.
A significant difference was found between Db estimates from ADP with measured TGV (1.0453 ± 0.01934 g/cm3) and ADP with predicted TGV (1.0415 ± 0.01858 g/cm3); however, neither was significantly different from Db obtained by the reference HD procedure (1.0417 ± 0.02391 g/cm3). For both ADP procedures, regression analyses produced an r = .737–.738, r 2 = .543−.544, and SEE = 0.02 g/cm3, and the regression lines deviated significantly from the line of identity; however, no significant biases were indicated.
Despite no significant mean differences between Db estimates from the ADP procedures and HD, more cross-validation research is needed before recommending the BOD POD for routine use with children in clinical and research settings.