The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of the social context, based within self-determination theory, on student’s in-class physical activity. A total of 84 Year 11/12 physical education students were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups; Autonomy-supportive, Controlling and Balanced. Data were collected using a pretest/posttest design measuring in-class physical activity. Analysis of data used Repeated Measures ANOVAs to examine group differences. Results indicated significant differences for students engaged in the autonomy-supportive context in terms of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. These results indicate that instructional behaviors that align with an autonomy-supportive context can facilitate higher levels of in-class physical activity.
The purpose of this study is to examine the influence of the Sport Education Model (SEM) on amotivated students affect and needs satisfaction. 78 amotivated students from an original pool of 1,176 students enrolled in one of 32 physical education classes. Classes were randomly assigned to either the SEM (N = 16) or traditional class (N = 16). Data were collected using a pretest/posttest design measuring affect (enjoyment) and needs satisfaction. Analysis of data used repeated-measures ANOVAs to examine differences. Results indicated significant changes in amotivated student’s perceptions of enjoyment and relatedness satisfaction within the SEM.
The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of an intervention grounded in Self-Determination Theory on preservice teachers’ instructional behaviors and the motivational responses of their students. A total of 62 preservice physical education teachers enrolled in a secondary physical education content and methods course were randomly assigned to either a treatment (n = 31) or a control group (n = 31). The study employed a pretest/posttest design and data were collected through: (a) observation of preservice teachers’ instruction, (b) a survey measuring preservice teachers’ perceptions of their autonomy support, and (c) a survey measuring secondary students’ motivation. Data analysis used repeated-measures ANOVAs to examine differences between the groups. Results indicated significant changes in autonomy-support for both teachers and students exposed to the intervention.
Stewart A. Vella and Dana J. Perlman
The purpose of this paper is to provide a concise resource for coaches, coach educators, and coaching scientists by reviewing three common approaches to coaching: the mastery approach to coaching; autonomy-supportive coaching; and the transformational leadership approach to coaching. The theoretical foundations, purpose, evidence base, specifed behaviours, and translation into coaching and coach education of each approach are reviewed. Despite diverse theoretical foundations and variations in purpose, there is some overlap in the coaching behaviours prescribed by each approach. However, there is limited empirical evidence to support the use of the three approaches in coach education and this is detrimental to effective and evidence-based coach education. Efforts to integrate theoretical foundations are promising, and a comprehensive prescription of coaching behaviours based on an integration of the three approaches is possible. This approach can potentially lead to cumulative effects on positive athlete outcomes. Future research should elucidate the common and unique contributions of these approaches to athletes’ outcomes, and whether they differ by age, sex, type of sport, or competition level.