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  • Author: Daniel A. Keir x
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Daniel A. Keir, Raphaël Zory, Céline Boudreau-Larivière and Olivier Serresse


Mechanical efficiency (ME) describes the ratio between mechanical (PMECH) and metabolic (PMET) power. The purpose of the study was to include an estimation of anaerobic energy expenditure (AnE) into the quantification of PMET using the accumulated oxygen deficit (AOD) and to examine its effect on the value of ME in treadmill running at submaximal, maximal, and supramaximal running speeds.


Participants (N = 11) underwent a graded maximal exercise test to determine velocity at peak oxygen uptake (vVO2peak). On 4 separate occasions, subjects ran for 6 min at speeds corresponding to 50%, 70%, 90%, and 110% of vVO2peak. During each testing session, PMET was measured from pulmonary oxygen uptake (VO2p) using opencircuit spirometry and was quantified in 2 ways: from VO2p and an estimate of AnE (from the AOD method) and from VO2p only. PMECH was determined from kinematic analyses.


ME at 50%, 70%, 90%, and 110% of vVO2peak was 59.9% ± 11.9%, 55.4% ± 12.2%, 51.5% ± 6.8%, and 52.9% ± 7.5%, respectively, when AnE was included in the calculation of PMET. The exclusion of AnE yielded significantly greater values of ME at all speeds: 62.9% ± 11.4%, 62.4% ± 12.6%, 55.1% ± 6.2%, and 64.2% ± 8.4%; P = .001 (for 50%, 70%, 90%, and 110% of vVO2peak, respectively).


The data suggest that an estimate of AnE should be considered in the computation of PMET when determining ME of treadmill running, as its exclusion leads to overestimations of ME values.

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Erin Calaine Inglis, Danilo Iannetta, Daniel A. Keir and Juan M. Murias

Purpose: To evaluate whether the coherence in the oxygen uptake (V˙O2) associated with the respiratory compensation point (RCP), near-infrared spectroscopy-derived muscle deoxyhemoglobin ([HHb]) break point ([HHb]BP), and maximal lactate steady state (MLSS) would persist at the midpoint and endpoint of a 7-month training and racing season. Methods: Eight amateur male cyclists were tested in 3 separate phases over the course of a cycling season (PRE, MID, and POST). Testing at each phase included a ramp-incremental test to exhaustion to determine RCP and [HHb]BP. The PRE and POST phases also included constant power output rides to determine MLSS. Results: Compared with PRE, V˙O2 at both RCP and [HHb]BP was greater at MID (delta: RCP 0.23 [0.14] L·min−1, [HHb]BP 0.33 [0.17] L·min−1) and POST (delta: RCP 0.21 [0.12], [HHb]BP 0.30 [0.14] L·min−1) (P < .05). V˙O2 at MLSS also increased from PRE to POST (delta: 0.17 [12] L·min−1) (P < .05). V˙O2 was not different at RCP, [HHb]BP, and MLSS at PRE (3.74 [0.34], 3.64 [0.40], 3.78 [0.23] L·min−1) or POST (3.96 [0.25], 3.95 [0.32], 3.94 [0.18] L·min−1) respectively, and RCP (3.98 [0.33] L·min−1) and [HHb]BP (3.97 [0.34] L·min−1) were not different at MID (P > .05). PRE–MID and PRE–POST changes in V˙O2 associated with RCP, [HHb]BP, and MLSS were strongly correlated (range: r = .85–.90) and demonstrated low mean bias (range = −.09 to .12 L·min−1). Conclusions: At all measured time points, V˙O2 at RCP, [HHb]BP, and MLSS were not different. Irrespective of phase comparison, direction, or magnitude of V˙O2 changes, intraindividual changes between each index were strongly related, indicating that interindividual differences were reflected in the group mean response and that their interrelationships are beyond coincidental.