Purpose: To compare bone mineral density (BMD) gains in adolescents of both genders stratified according to different martial art styles in a 9-month follow-up study. Methods: The longitudinal study consisted of 29 adolescents of both genders and age between 11 and 17 years stratified into a control group (not engaged in any sport) and 50 fighters (kung fu/karate, n = 29; judo, n = 21). All 79 subjects underwent anthropometric measures (weight, height, leg length, and height set) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (BMD, in g/cm2) at 2 moments, baseline and 9 months later. Maturity offset (age at peak height velocity), lean soft tissue, chronological age, and resistance training were treated as covariates. Results: Male judoists presented higher gains in BMD-spine [0.098 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval, 0.068–0.128)] than control group [0.040 g/cm2 (95% confidence interval, 0.011–0.069)] (post hoc test with P = .030). There was no effect of martial art on BMD gains among girls. Independently of gender, in all multivariate models, lean soft tissue constituted the most relevant covariate. Conclusions: Judo practice in adolescents affected the bone accrual significantly after 9-month follow-up compared with controls, mainly in boys.
Igor H. Ito, Han C.G. Kemper, Ricardo R. Agostinete, Kyle R. Lynch, Diego G.D. Christofaro, Enio R. Ronque and Rômulo A. Fernandes
Diego G.D. Christofaro, Bruna C. Turi-Lynch, Kyle R. Lynch, William R. Tebar, Rômulo A. Fernandes, Fernanda G. Tebar, Gregore I. Mielke and Xuemei Sui
Background: This study investigated associations between different types of sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) in parent and their child, including the moderating effects of parent and child sex. Methods: In total, 1231 adolescents, 1202 mothers, and 871 fathers were evaluated. The SB (TV viewing + computer + video game); different types of PA (leisure-time PA, occupational PA, and total PA); and the socioeconomic level were evaluated by questionnaire. The relationship between adolescents’ SB and PA with parental characteristics was estimated by linear regression. Results: The SB of male adolescents was correlated to the father’s SB (β = 0.26; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.13–0.39) and mother’s SB (β = 0.18; 95% CI, 0.06–0.31). A similar relationship was observed between SB of female adolescents and the father’s SB (β = 0.31; 95% CI, 0.19–0.42) and mother’s SB (β = 0.29; 95% CI, 0.20–0.38]). The SB of girls was inversely related to mother’s occupational PA (β = −2.62; 95% CI, −3.66 to −0.53]). The PA of the boys and girls was correlated with their fathers and mothers PA. All the results were adjusted for age and parent’s socioeconomic level. Conclusions: SB and PA of parents were associated with SB and PA of their children, regardless of gender. Strategies for health promotion should consider the family environment to increase PA and reduce SB.
Vinícius Y.B. Suetake, Emerson Franchini, Bruna T.C. Saraiva, Anne K.F. da Silva, Aline F.B. Bernardo, Rayane L. Gomes, Luiz Carlos M. Vanderlei and Diego G.D. Christofaro
Purpose: The aim of the study was to evaluate the cardiac autonomic modulation after 9 months of martial arts practice in healthy children and adolescents. Method: The study included 59 children and adolescents who were divided into 3 groups: judo, Muay Thai, and control. Heart rate variability was measured by a heart rate monitor, model Polar RS800CX. The intervention occurred twice a week on nonconsecutive days, lasting 60 minutes each session. A 1-way analysis of variance was used to compare participants at baseline. The comparisons between groups at baseline and after the intervention were carried out by a 2-way analysis of variance for repeated measures. Results : After 9 months of intervention, significant increases were observed for root mean square successive differences, with higher values post compared with baseline (19.5%; P = .04). For SD1, an interaction effect was observed, with increased posttraining values compared with baseline (24.1%; P = .04) for the judo group. Qualitative analysis of the Poincaré plot showed greater dispersion of RR intervals, mainly beat to beat, after the judo intervention compared with the baseline. The Muay Thai and control groups presented no improvement. Conclusion : After 9 months of intervention, there were increases in cardiac autonomic modulation of children and adolescents participating in judo training. The practice of martial arts, such as judo, can be encouraged from an early age to improve cardiovascular system functioning, possibly providing protection against cardiovascular problems.