Though improved performance as a result of goal setting has been reported in organizational psychology studies, little research in sport settings has demonstrated these effects. This study was designed to examine the effects of a goalsetting training program on basketball free-throw performance, perceptions of success, and self-efficacy. Eighteen undergraduate students were matched by free-throw shooting ability, then randomly assigned to either goal-training (GT) or no-goal-training (NT) groups for a period of 5 weeks. Although the GT group reported significantly higher perceptions of success and self-efficacy than did the NT group, no significant differences between groups were revealed for free-throw accuracy. Correlational data suggested a stronger relationship between self-efficacy and free-throw performance for the GT group than for the NT group. Discussed are factors that contribute to the discrepancies between results found in sport related investigations of goal setting and those obtained from studies conducted in business and laboratory environments.
J. Ted Miller and Edward McAuley
Robert W. Motl, Weimo Zhu, Youngsik Park, Edward McAuley, Jennifer A. Scott, and Erin M. Snook
We examined the reliability of scores from physical activity monitors in a sample of 193 individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) who wore a pedometer and an accelerometer for a 7-day period. There were no significant differences among days for the pedometer (p = .12) or the accelerometer (p = .15) indicating that week and weekend days can be analyzed in a single intra-class correlation (ICC) analytic model. The 7 days of monitoring yielded ICC estimates of .93 for both the pedometer and accelerometer, and a minimum of 3 days yielded a reliability of .80 for both the pedometer and accelerometer. Results indicated that physical activity monitor scores are reliable measures of physical activity for individuals with MS.