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Arupendra Mozumdar and Gary Liguori

Objective:

To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) with occupational physical activity (OCPA) and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) among working women.

Methods:

The prevalence of MetSyn was calculated for 642 working women. Self-report questionnaire was used to determine levels of OCPA and LTPA and other lifestyle factors. Biometric data were directly collected on all women.

Results:

No direct relationship for OCPA and the MetSyn was determined. Sufficient LTPA however, was significantly associated with lower prevalence of MetSyn. No dose response relationship was determined with PA and MetSyn. The odds of having MetSyn was significantly higher for sedentary workers with insufficient LTPA compared with those achieving sufficient LTPA. The odds for MetSyn were similar among women employed in moderately active or heavy work yet completing insufficient LTPA compared with women doing sufficient LTPA.

Conclusions:

For women with sedentary occupations, a sufficient amount of LTPA is essential to reduce the risk of having the MetSyn. Women in moderate to heavy working occupations may be acquiring adequate amounts of PA to avoid having the MetSyn.

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Nadja Willinger, James Steele, Lou Atkinson, Gary Liguori, Alfonso Jimenez, Steve Mann, and Elizabeth Horton

Background: Structured physical activity (PA) interventions (ie, intentionally planned) can be implemented in a variety of facilities, and therefore can reach a large proportion of the population. The aim of the authors was to summarize the effectiveness of structured interventions upon PA outcomes, in addition to proportions of individuals adopting and maintaining PA, and adherence and retention rates. Methods: Systematic review with narrative synthesis and exploratory meta-analyses. Twelve studies were included. Results: Effectiveness on PA levels during adoption (pre- to first time point) showed a trivial standardized effect (0.15 [−0.06 to 0.36]); during maintenance (any time point after the first and >6 mo since initiation) the standardized effect was also trivial with a wide interval estimate (0.19 [−0.68 to 1.07]). Few studies reported adoption (k = 3) or maintenance rates (k = 2). Retention at follow-up did not differ between structured PA or controls (75.1% [65.0%–83.0%] vs 75.4% [67.0%–82.3%]), nor did intervention adherence (63.0% [55.6%–69.6%] vs 77.8% [19.4%–98.1%]). Conclusion: Structured PA interventions lack evidence for effectiveness in improving PA levels. Furthermore, though retention is often reported and is similar between interventions and controls, adoption, maintenance, and adherence rates were rarely reported rendering difficulty in interpreting results of effectiveness of structured PA interventions.

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Nikita Rowley, James Steele, Matthew Wade, Robert James Copeland, Steve Mann, Gary Liguori, Elizabeth Horton, and Alfonso Jimenez

Objectives: To examine if exercise referral schemes (ERSs) are associated with meaningful changes in physical activity in a large cohort of individuals throughout England, Scotland, and Wales from The National Referral Database. Methods: Data were obtained from 5246 participants from 12 different ERSs, lasting 6–12 weeks. The preexercise referral scheme and changes from the preexercise to the postexercise referral scheme in self-reported International Physical Activity Questionnaire scores were examined. A 2-stage individual patient data meta-analysis was used to generate the effect estimates. Results: For the pre-ERS metabolic equivalent (MET) minutes per week, the estimate (95% confidence interval [CI]) was 676 MET minutes per week (539 to 812). For the change in MET minutes per week, the estimate (95% CI) was an increase of 540 MET minutes per week (396 to 684). Changes in the total PA levels occurred as a result of increases in vigorous activity of 17 minutes (95% CI, 9 to 24), increases in moderate activity of 29 minutes (95% CI, 22 to 36), and reductions in sitting of −61 minutes (95% CI, −78 to −43), though little change in walking (−5 min; 95% CI, −14 to 5) was found. Conclusions: Most participants undergoing ERSs are already “moderately active.” Changes in PA behavior associated with participation are through increased moderate to vigorous PA and reduced sitting. However, this was insufficient to change the International Physical Activity Questionnaire category, and the participants were still “moderately active.”