The purpose of the study was to examine the resultant joint forces (RJFs) and torques (RJTs) at the shoulder, elbow, and wrist during penalty throws and determine the relationships between muscle actions and motions of the throwing arm. Subjects with an overhand (OH) throwing technique created larger maximal and average RJTs at the shoulder and elbow compared to subjects with a sweep (SW) technique (Feltner & Nelson, 1996). Prior to release, OH technique subjects decreased their abduction torque and created adduction torques at the shoulder. Adduction torques and downward vertical motion of the trunk, together with an internal rotation torque at the shoulder, resulted in large internal rotation angular velocities at release for the OH technique subjects. The SW technique subjects did not exhibit these technique characteristics. Additionally, throwing technique exhibited a moderate but positive relationship with several chest, upper arm, and forearm circumference measures. Findings suggest that muscular strength may be a causal determinant of technique style.
Michael E. Feltner and Grant Taylor
Richard J. Taylor, Dajo Sanders, Tony Myers, Grant Abt, Celia A. Taylor, and Ibrahim Akubat
Purpose: To identify the dose-response relationship between measures of training load (TL) and changes in aerobic fitness in academy rugby union players. Method: Training data from 10 academy rugby union players were collected during a 6-wk in-season period. Participants completed a lactate-threshold test that was used to assess VO2max, velocity at VO2max, velocity at 2 mmol/L (lactate threshold), and velocity at 4 mmol/L (onset of lactate accumulation; vOBLA) as measures of aerobic fitness. Internal-TL measures calculated were Banister training impulse (bTRIMP), Edwards TRIMP, Lucia TRIMP, individualized TRIMP (iTRIMP), and session RPE (sRPE). External-TL measures calculated were total distance, PlayerLoad™, high-speed distance >15 km/h, very-high-speed distance >18 km/h, and individualized high-speed distance based on each player’s vOBLA. Results: A second-order-regression (quadratic) analysis found that bTRIMP (R 2 = .78, P = .005) explained 78% of the variance and iTRIMP (R 2 = .55, P = .063) explained 55% of the variance in changes in VO2max. All other HR-based internal-TL measures and sRPE explained less than 40% of variance with fitness changes. External TL explained less than 42% of variance with fitness changes. Conclusions: In rugby players, bTRIMP and iTRIMP display a curvilinear dose-response relationship with changes in maximal aerobic fitness.