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Gregory C. Bogdanis, Athanasios Tsoukos, and Panagiotis Veligekas


To examine the acute effects of a conditioning plyometric exercise on long-jump performance during a simulated long-jump competition.


Eight national-level track and field decathletes performed 6 long-jump attempts with a full approach run separated by 10-min recoveries. In the experimental condition subjects performed 3 rebound vertical jumps with maximal effort 3 min before the last 5 attempts, while the 1st attempt served as baseline. In the control condition the participants performed 6 long jumps without executing the conditioning exercise.


Compared with baseline, long-jump performance progressively increased only in the experimental condition, from 3.0%, or 17.5 cm, in the 3rd attempt (P = .046, d = 0.56), to 4.8%, or 28.2 cm, in the 6th attempt (P = .0001, d = 0.84). The improvement in long-jump performance was due to a gradual increase in vertical takeoff velocity from the 3rd (by 8.7%, P = .0001, d = 1.82) to the 6th jump (by 17.7%, P = .0001, d = 4.38). Horizontal-approach velocity, takeoff duration, and horizontal velocity at takeoff were similar at all long-jump attempts in both conditions (P = .80, P = .36, and P = .15, respectively).


Long-jump performance progressively improved during a simulated competition when a plyometric conditioning exercise was executed 3 min before each attempt. This improvement was due to a progressive increase in vertical velocity of takeoff, while there was no effect on the horizontal velocity.

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos Terzis, and Argyris G. Toubekis

Purpose: To examine the acute effect of dry-land strength training on physiological and biomechanical parameters in a subsequent swim training session. Methods: Twelve male swimmers (age: 19.0 [2.2] y, peak oxygen uptake: 65.5 [11.4] mL·kg−1·min−1) performed a 5 × 200-m test with progressively increasing intensity. Blood lactate (BL) concentration was measured after each 200-m bout, and the speed corresponding to 4 mmol·L−1 (V4) was calculated. In the experimental (EXP) and control (CON) conditions, swimmers participated in a swim training session consisting of 1000-m warm-up, a bout of 10-second tethered swimming sprint, and 5 × 400 m at V4. In EXP condition, swimmers completed a dry-land strength training session (load: 85% of 1-repetition maximum) 15 minutes before the swimming session. In CON condition, swimmers performed the swimming session only. Oxygen uptake, BL concentration, arm-stroke rate, arm-stroke length, and arm-stroke efficiency were measured during the 5 × 400 m. Results: Force in the 10-second sprint was not different between conditions (P = .61), but fatigue index was higher in the EXP condition (P = .03). BL concentration was higher in EXP condition and showed large effect size at the fifth 400-m repetition compared with CON condition (6.4 [2.7] vs 4.6 [2.8] mmol·L−1, d = 0.63). During the 5 × 400 m, arm-stroke efficiency remained unchanged, arm-stroke length was decreased from the third repetition onward (P = .01), and arm-stroke rate showed a medium increment in EXP condition (d = 0.23). Conclusions: Strength training completed 15 minutes before a swim training session caused moderate changes in biomechanical parameters and increased BL concentration during swimming. Despite these changes, swimmers were able to maintain force and submaximal speed during the endurance training session.

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Gavriil G. Arsoniadis, Petros G. Botonis, Alexandros I. Tsoltos, Alexandros D. Chatzigiannakis, Gregory C. Bogdanis, Gerasimos D. Terzis, and Argyris G. Toubekis

Purpose: To examine the effect of dryland training during an 11-week lockdown period due to COVID-19 on swimming performance. Methods: Twelve competitive swimmers performed 50- and 300-m maximum-effort tests in their preferred stroke and 200-, 400-, and four 50-m front crawl sprints (4 × 50 m) before and after the lockdown period. Critical speed as an index of aerobic endurance was calculated using (1) 50-, 300-, and (2) 200-, 400-m tests. Blood lactate concentration was measured after the 400- and 4 × 50-m tests. To evaluate strength-related abilities, the dryland tests included handgrip and shoulder isometric strength. Tethered swimming force was measured during a 10-second sprint. During the lockdown period, dryland training was applied, and the session rating of perceived exertion training (sRPE) load was recorded daily. Results: sRPE training load during the lockdown was decreased by 78% (16%), and critical speed was reduced 4.7% to 4.9% compared to prelockdown period (P < .05). Performance time in 200, 300, and 400 m deteriorated 2.6% to 3.9% (P < .05), while it remained unaltered in 4 × 50- and 50-m tests (P > .05). Tethered force increased 9% (10%) (P < .01), but handgrip and shoulder isometric force remained unaltered (P > .05). Blood lactate concentration decreased 19% (21%) after the 400-m test and was unchanged following the 4 × 50-m tests (P > .05). Conclusions: Performance deterioration in the 200, 300, and 400 m indicates reduced aerobic fitness and impaired technical ability, while strength and repeated-sprint ability were maintained. When a long abstention from swimming training is forced, dryland training may facilitate preservation in short-distance but not middle-distance swimming performance.