Ten young and 10 older adult females, who were all right-eye and right-hand dominant, performed a switch-press and a hitting coincidence anticipation timing task on a Bassin Anticipation Timing apparatus with stimulus speeds of 4,8, and 12 mph. Level of experience with open skills was determined by a self-report questionnaire, and all participants were screened on six visual characteristics using the Biopter Vision Test. Unlike the young adults, older adults reported no substantial experience with open skills. Prior experience with open skills was found to have little effect on the different dependent variables. Nonetheless, young females performed with less absolute and variable error than older females. Our data suggest that older females’ perceptual and motor systems are differentially affected by manipulations of task and stimulus characteristics.
Harry J. Meeuwsen, Sinah L. Goode and Noreen L. Goggin
Seung-oh Choi, Harry J. Meeuwsen, Ron French and Jill Stenwall
Behavioral, response outcome, and response kinematic measures were analyzed for 6 adults (5 males and 1 female) with profound mental retardation (PMR). Participants performed 30 error-free simple linear aiming movements on a digitizing tablet during 7 acquisition, 3 retention, and 4 transfer days. A one-way ANOVA on the number of trials to reach 30 error-free responses revealed that adults with PMR improved, learned the skill, and transferred it to a new situation. The 2 × 3 × 3 (Phase × Day × Block) repeated measures ANOVAs for response outcome and kinematic measures indicated that participants were able to initiate movement faster with practice. However, practice did not result in changes in kinematic response measures.
Seung-oh Choi, Harry J. Meeuwsen, Ron French, Claudine Sherrill and Rozie McCabe
The purpose was to examine whether adults with profound mental retardation (PMR) have the ability to learn and transfer a motor skill to a novel situation. In Experiment 1, novel task transfer performance was examined. Six male adults with PMR threw beanbags three different distances during acquisition, followed by four novel transfer distances and a novel implement (a horse shoe). In Experiment 2, a 48-hr and a 1-week delayed retention test was used with 6 different males with PMR who practiced three beanbag-throwing distances and then performed two familiar and two novel distances for each retention test. Analyses indicated that, with concurrent visual information of the target, adults with PMR can throw accurately on retention and transfer tests and can generalize beanbag throwing skill to horseshoe-throwing. The prototype model of memory representation seems to explain the findings better than the exemplar model. In addition, random practice of skill variations appears to be an effective teaching strategy.