Purpose: To examine whether the use of a carbohydrate mouth rinse (CMR) can improve multiple choice reaction time in amateur boxers during sparring. Methods: A total of 8 male amateur boxers (age 22  y, stature 1.78 [0.07] m, mass 73.6 [14.2] kg) with at least 18 months of experience in the sport volunteered to participate in the study. All participants attended a familiarization session, followed by an experimental (CMR; 6% dextrose) and placebo trials in a randomized order. Participants undertook 3 × 2 minutes of sparring against an ability- and size-matched (stature and mass) opponent. Multiple choice reaction time and perceived exertion were measured before round 1 and then after each round. The respective mouth rinse was administered in a 25-mL solution for 10 seconds before each round. Magnitude-based inferences were used to compare the results of each round (mean difference; ±90% confidence limits). Results: The CMR was unlikely to have a beneficial effect on multiple choice reaction time compared with placebo (mean ± 90% confidence limits: 5 ± 9.5, 4 ± 3.4, −1 ± 8.5 lights for rounds 1 to 3, respectively) and had a possibly harmful effect on perceived exertion in round 1 (10 ± 20). There was an unlikely harmful effect on perceived exertion in rounds 2 (1 ± 12) and 3 (9 ± 23). Conclusion: There is no evidence to support the use of CMR during sparring in amateur boxers.
Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades, and Ian H. Walshe
Emma L. Sweeney, Daniel J. Peart, Irene Kyza, Thomas Harkes, Jason G. Ellis, and Ian H. Walshe
Experimental sleep restriction (SR) has demonstrated reduced insulin sensitivity in healthy individuals. Exercise is well-known to be beneficial for metabolic health. A single bout of exercise has the capacity to increase insulin sensitivity for up to 2 days. Therefore, the current study aimed to determine if sprint interval exercise could attenuate the impairment in insulin sensitivity after one night of SR in healthy males. Nineteen males were recruited for this randomized crossover study which consisted of four conditions—control, SR, control plus exercise, and sleep restriction plus exercise. Time in bed was 8 hr (2300–0700) in the control conditions and 4 hr (0300–0700) in the SR conditions. Conditions were separated by a 1-week entraining period. Participants slept at home, and compliance was assessed using wrist actigraphy. Following the night of experimental sleep, participants either conducted sprint interval exercise or rested for the equivalent duration. An oral glucose tolerance test was then conducted. Blood samples were obtained at regular intervals for measurement of glucose and insulin. Insulin concentrations were higher in SR than control (p = .022). Late-phase insulin area under the curve was significantly lower in sleep restriction plus exercise than SR (862 ± 589 and 1,267 ± 558; p = .004). Glucose area under the curve was not different between conditions (p = .207). These findings suggest that exercise improves the late postprandial response following a single night of SR.
Jordan D. Philpott, Chris Donnelly, Ian H. Walshe, Elizabeth E. MacKinley, James Dick, Stuart D.R. Galloway, Kevin D. Tipton, and Oliver C. Witard
Soccer players often experience eccentric exercise-induced muscle damage given the physical demands of soccer match-play. Since long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA) enhance muscle sensitivity to protein supplementation, dietary supplementation with a combination of fish oil–derived n-3PUFA, protein, and carbohydrate may promote exercise recovery. This study examined the influence of adding n-3PUFA to a whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate containing beverage over a six-week supplementation period on physiological markers of recovery measured over three days following eccentric exercise. Competitive soccer players were assigned to one of three conditions (2 × 200 mL): a fish oil supplement beverage (FO; n = 10) that contained n-3PUFA (1100 mg DHA/EPA—approximately 550 mg DHA, 550 mg EPA), whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); a protein supplement beverage (PRO; n = 10) that contained whey protein (15 g), leucine (1.8 g), and carbohydrate (20 g); and a carbohydrate supplement beverage (CHO; n = 10) that contained carbohydrate (24 g). Eccentric exercise consisted of unilateral knee extension/flexion contractions on both legs separately. Maximal force production was impaired by 22% during the 72-hour recovery period following eccentric exercise (p < 0.05). Muscle soreness, expressed as area under the curve (AUC) during 72-hour recovery, was less in FO (1948 ± 1091 mm × 72 h) than PRO (4640 ± 2654 mm × 72 h, p < 0.05) and CHO (4495 ± 1853 mm × 72 h, p = 0.10). Blood concentrations of creatine kinase, expressed as AUC, were ~60% lower in FO compared to CHO (p < 0.05) and tended to be lower (~39%, p = 0.07) than PRO. No differences in muscle function, soccer performance, or blood c-reactive protein concentrations were observed between groups. In conclusion, the addition of n-3PUFA to a beverage containing whey protein, leucine, and carbohydrate ameliorates the increase in muscle soreness and blood concentrations of creatine kinase following eccentric exercise in competitive soccer players.
Thomas W. Jones, Ian H. Walshe, David L. Hamilton, Glyn Howatson, Mark Russell, Oliver J. Price, Alan St Clair Gibson, and Duncan N. French
To compare anabolic signaling responses to differing sequences of concurrent strength and endurance training in a fed state.
Eighteen resistance-trained men were randomly assigned to the following experimental conditions: strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), or endurance followed by strength training (END-ST). Muscle tissue samples were taken from the vastus lateralis before each exercise protocol, on cessation of exercise, and 1 h after cessation of strength training. Tissue was analyzed for total and phosphorylated (p-) signaling proteins linked to the mTOR and AMPK networks.
Strength-training performance was similar between ST, ST-END, and END-ST. p-S6k1 was elevated from baseline 1 h posttraining in ST and ST-END (both P < .05). p-4E-BP1 was significantly lower than baseline post-ST (P = .01), whereas at 1 h postexercise in the ST-END condition p-4E-BP1 was significantly greater than postexercise (P = .04). p-ACC was elevated from baseline both postexercise and 1 h postexercise (both P < .05) in the END-ST condition. AMPK, mTOR, p38, PKB, and eEF2 responded similarly to ST, ST-END, and END-ST. Signaling responses to ST, ST-END, and END were largely similar. As such it cannot be ascertained which sequence of concurrent strength and endurance training is most favorable in promoting anabolic signaling.
In the case of the current study an acute bout of concurrent training of differing sequences elicited similar responses of the AMPK and mTOR networks.