Purpose: This study seeks to offer a motivational sequence that explains the intention of physical activity among low-motivation students. Method: Participants included 1,872 students (M age = 15.01, SD age = 0.83 years) from three countries. A cluster analysis (i.e., a person-centered approach) and a multigroup structural equation model (i.e., a dimensional approach) were used. Results: Three motivational profiles, namely, high motivation, high motivation with low ego, and low motivation–moderate task orientation were established. The model first tested, based on previous research findings, was found not to be invariant across the different profiles. The new model tested was determined to be suitable for the low-motivation profile. Discussion: The results revealed that widely accepted motivational sequences that explain the intention to be physically active in the future may be inapplicable for the least motivated students. The findings suggest that dispositional flow may play an important role in the engagement of low-motivation students in future physical activity.
Evelia Franco, Javier Coterón, Elisa Huéscar, and Juan A. Moreno-Murcia
Ruben Barakat, Mireia Pelaez, Rocio Montejo, Ignacio Refoyo, and Javier Coteron
In spite of an extensive knowledge of the physiologic features of exercise during pregnancy, we still lack a comprehensive understanding of the effects of different types, intensities and duration of exercise throughout pregnancy on maternal and fetal well being. The aim of the current study was to examine the influence of an aerobic exercise program throughout pregnancy on gestational age at the moment of delivery.
This study was a randomized controlled trial. Three hundred and twenty Caucasian (Spanish) healthy pregnant women with singleton gestation were randomly assigned to either an exercise (n = 160) or a control (n = 160) group. Gestational age (weeks) and other outcomes were measured. The exercise program included 85 sessions (general fitness class, 3 times/week, 55–60 min/session from weeks 8–10 to weeks 38–39 of pregnancy).
Two hundred and ninety women were analyzed (exercise group EG, n = 138, control group CG, n = 152). The mean gestational age did not differ between groups (EG= 39.7± 1.3 vs CG= 39.6 ± 1.1 weeks, P = .81). Relative to preterm deliveries in EG we found 6 (4.3%) and 11 (7.2%) in CG, (P = .73).
A supervised program of moderate exercise performed throughout pregnancy is not a risk of preterm delivery for healthy pregnant women.
Evelia Franco, Ricardo Cuevas, Javier Coterón, and Christopher Spray
Purpose: To examine the role of psychological need thwarting in mediating physical education teachers’ work pressures stemming from school authorities and burnout. Method: A total of 345 physical education teachers (M = 47.46; SD = 8.79) completed some online validated questionnaires. Results: Structural equation modeling first revealed that pressures from school authorities predicted needs thwarting which, in turn, predicted burnout. In a second model, in which burnout was deemed as a multidimensional construct, autonomy and competence thwarting was found to predict both emotional exhaustion and depersonalization. Discussion: These findings suggest that when teachers find themselves pressured by school authorities to act in certain way, they are more likely to feel more exhausted and to adopt more cynical attitudes toward their students due to the thwarting of their basic needs. Practical implications related to school and national policies are discussed. Conclusion: External pressures affect PE teachers’ emotional states and educational policies should address this issue.