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Jeffrey A. McCubbin

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Jeffrey A. McCubbin and John M. Dunn

This study examined the need for the preparation of leadership personnel in the area of adapted physical education within the USA. Data were collected on the advertised positions in the Chronicle of Higher Education between 1991-1998 compared to the numbers of personnel prepared during a previous, similar time period (1981-1989). During the 1991-1998 time period, 87 professionals completed dissertations related to adapted physical education, while 173 positions in institutions of higher education were advertised for professionals with expertise in adapted physical education. These data indicate that there continues to be a significant need for additional doctoral personnel trained in adapted physical education for college or university teaching positions in the United States. Evidence of a need for diversified, well-qualified training programs is offered. In addition, the authors suggest promising alternate approaches to assist in meeting the needs of qualified personnel in adapted physical education for leadership positions.

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Lauriece L. Zittel and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an integrated physical education setting on the motor performance of preschool children with developmental delays. Subjects participated in segregated and integrated physical education classes and were observed practicing locomotor and object control skills. The quality of performance was analyzed to determine the number of critical elements present and the level of teacher or peer prompt required to initiate and complete each performance. A single-subject reversal design (A-B-A-B) was used. Four children with developmental delays were filmed within an 8-week school schedule while practicing two fundamental gross motor skills during segregated and integrated conditions. The results provide evidence that children with developmental delays are able to maintain their level of gross motor skill and independence within an integrated physical education setting. Although day-to-day variability was calculated for each subject, overall skill level remained stable and level of independence was not compromised in the integrated setting.

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Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Gregory B. Shasby

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of isokinetic resistance exercise on torque development and movement time of individuals with cerebral palsy. Subjects (N = 30) 10 to 20 years of age were matched and assigned to one of three treatment groups: IR, isokinetic resistance; NR, repetitive practice with no resistance; and C, control. The treatment protocol consisted of exercising the tricep extensor group with 3 sets of 10 maximal speed repetitions, 3 times per week for 6 weeks. Data were collected for movement time on the Dekan Performance Analyzer with adapted photoelectric switches. Torque data were collected on the Cybex II with dual channel recorder. Significant differences (p < .05) occurred on both movement time and torque development for the isokinetically trained group. It was concluded that isokinetic resistance exercise affected neuromuscular performance in these youths with cerebral palsy similar to the nonhandicapped population.

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John M. Dunn and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

This paper presents data that document the need for additional leadership personnel in adapted physical education. A systematic analysis of the Chronicle of Higher Education, Dissertation Abstracts International, and the Physical Education Gold Book reveals that there is currently a discrepancy between the number of advertised positions in higher education and the number of available personnel to fill these positions. The delivery of appropriate personnel preparation programs in the area of adapted physical education is dependent upon the availability of well trained and qualified personnel. Observations are made on the type of training needed and recommendations for ensuring the availability of a qualified pool of applicants.

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Erwin Borremans, Pauli Rintala and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

While physical activity is beneficial for youth with developmental disabilities, little is known about those individuals’ fitness profile and levels of activity. Therefore the purpose of this study was to investigate the physical fitness profile and physical activity level of 30 adolescents with and without Asperger syndrome (AS). Evaluations were done using the Eurofit physical fitness test and the Baecke Habitual Physical Activity questionnaire. A 2 × 2 MANOVA indicated that adolescents with AS scored significantly lower than the comparison group on all physical fitness subtests, including balance, coordination, flexibility, muscular strength, running speed, and cardio-respiratory endurance (p < .001). Adolescents with AS were also less physically active (p < .001). Engagement in physical activities is therefore recommended.

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Christopher C. Draheim, Daniel P. Williams and Jeffrey A. McCubbin

The purpose of the study is to determine whether cardiovascular disease risk factor differences exist between Active Special Olympians, Inactive Non-Special Olympians, and Active Non-Special Olympians. Resting blood pressure, total and abdominal body fat, fasting cholesterol profiles, and fasting insulin were measured in 145 (72 women, 73 men) adults with mild mental retardation. Active Special Olympians (n = 45) possessed lower diastolic blood pressures, body fat percentages, abdominal fat, triglycerides, and insulin than Inactive Non-Special Olympians (n = 38) and possessed lower body fat percentages than Active Non-Special Olympians (n = 62). Active Non-Special Olympians possessed lower triglycerides and insulin than Inactive Non-Special Olympians. Future prospective trials are needed to determine whether Special Olympics participation may be one effective component of community-based physical activity programs aimed at reducing cardiovascular disease risk.

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Rebecca R. Bryan, Jeffrey A. McCubbin and Hans van der Mars

The use of paraeducators has increased as a main mechanism to include more students with disabilities in the public schools in the U.S. Although the utilization of paraeducators is intended to be a supportive service delivery option, many concerns and challenges have resulted. The purpose of this study was to examine the role of the paraeducator in the general physical education environment from the perspectives of special education, physical education, and adapted physical education teachers and paraeducators. Data were collected from a phenomenological approach using questionnaires, interviews, and observations. Results indicate concerns about the clarity of the role of the paraeducator in physical education. Emerging themes include elastic definitions of student protection and teacher backup, contradictory expectations and mixed acceptance, and paraeducators’ role ambiguity. Findings regarding the role of the paraeducator are essential in determining both best practice and legal policy for the appropriate utilization of paraeducators in physical education.

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Joonkoo Yun, Michael J. Pavol and Jeffrey J. Widrick

This study examined whether the net rate of oxygen uptake (VO2net) and the net oxygen uptake per kilometer (VO2net/km) are affected during walking in adults with Down syndrome (DS) and whether their preferred walking speed (PWS) minimizes the VO2net/km. Respiratory gases were collected as 14 adults with DS and 15 adults without DS completed a series of treadmill walking trials. PWS was measured over 15 meters in a hallway. The VO2net and the VO2net/km were higher in adults with DS than adults without DS. The overground PWS normalized for leg length was the same for both groups and did not appear to minimize the VO2net/km. Thus, adults with DS are less economical during walking than adults without DS. The overground PWS does not minimize the metabolic cost during treadmill walking.

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Georgia C. Frey, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, Steve Hannigan-Downs, Susan L Kasser and Steven O. Skaggs

The purpose of this study was to compare physical fitness levels of trained runners with mild mental retardation (MMR) (7 males and 2 females, age = 28.7 ± 7.4 years, weight = 67.0 ± 11.7 kg) and those without (7 males and 2 females, age = 29.1 ± 7.5, weight = 68.7 ± 8.8 kg). Paired t tests revealed no differences between runners with and without MMR on measures of V̇O2peak (56.3 ± 9.1 vs. 57.7 ± 4.1 ml · kg-1 · min-1), percent body fat (16.6 ± 8.4 vs. 16.6 ± 3.1), and lower back/hamstring flexibility (33.1 ± 10.9 vs. 28.6 ± 10.1 cm). Knee flexion (KF) and extension (KE) strength were significantly greater in runners without MMR compared to those with MMR (KF peak torque = 65.7 ±7.9 vs. 48.7 ± 15.7 ft/lb; KE peak torque = 138.5 ± 17.7 vs. 104.4 ± 29.9 ft/lb). It was concluded that trained runners with MMR can achieve high levels of physical fitness comparable to individuals without MMR.