Researchers posit that physical activity (PA) settings may provide an increased opportunity for social interaction. However, little consensus exists regarding the construct of social skills. Moreover, little is known about what type or amount of PA is necessary for individuals on the autism spectrum to benefit from this increased interaction. Thus, this scoping review synthesized the components (e.g., design, participants, independent and dependent variables, etc.) and findings of PA-based interventions that included social skill components to identify how interventions have incorporated these skills in different settings. Based on a review of 25 articles, this review revealed a great deal of variability in the types of PA, social skills, and instruments studied, as well as the intensity of intervention delivery in the published findings. No longitudinal studies were identified as a part of the search. These results provide a foundation for the design of effective PA-based interventions that may have an increased impact on the social skills of individuals on the autism spectrum. Future research should employ longitudinal designs to capture the relationship between social skills and PA, as well as to increase the likelihood of capturing change.
Ji-Hyun Lee and Tae-Lim Yoon
Context: Kinesiology tape (KT), multidirectional resistance exercise, and interventions for decreased ankle dorsiflexion range of motion are gaining popularity in the treatment of patients with chronic ankle instability (CAI). However, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of combined interventions in patients with CAI. Objectives: To compare the effects of KT alone, KT with resistance exercise (KT + resistance), and KT with resistance and heel raise-lower exercise (KT + resistance + heel) on the results of the dynamic balance test (star excursion balance test [SEBT]), functional performance (lateral step-down test), and ankle muscle activation in patients with CAI. Design and Setting: This study used a repeated-measures design in a laboratory setting. Main Outcome Measures: The participants completed 3 different interventions with a 24-hour rest period between interventions. The SEBT, lateral step-down test, and ankle muscle activation results were used as the outcome measures. All outcomes were assessed before and immediately after the 3 interventions. Results: The results of the SEBT-anteromedial direction significantly increased with KT + resistance (78.61 [16.11] cm, P = .01, ES = 0.50) and KT + resistance + heel (76.94 [16.00] cm, P = .03, ES = 0.33) in comparison with the baseline values (73.68 [12.84] cm). Additionally, the result of the SEBT-anteromedial direction was significantly greater with KT + resistance (78.61 [16.11] cm) than with KT alone (76.00 [14.90] cm, P = .05, ES = 0.18). The number of errors during the lateral step-down test was significantly lower for the KT alone (2.16 [0.90] errors, P = .02, ES = 0.46), KT + resistance (2.10 [0.79] errors, P = .01, ES = 0.54), and KT + resistance + heel (2.03 [0.75] errors, P = .003, ES = 0.61) interventions than the baseline values (2.55 [0.85] errors). Conclusions: Patients with CAI should be encouraged to perform KT + resistance to improve balance.
Jihyun Lee, Seung Ho Chang, and Jerred Jolin
The motor and social skill difficulties experienced by many children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) can create challenges when participating in age appropriate physical activity contexts. Although behavioral interventions can increase the general social communicative skills of children with ASD, often the skills targeted are not relevant to physical activity contexts. Thus, this pilot study utilized a movement-based intervention program to support children with ASD in learning both social and movement skills that are relevant to physical activity contexts. Nineteen children with ASD with a mean age of 9.3 (±3.0) years participated in this program for 8 weeks, twice a week, at a recreation center as an afterschool activity. Six object control skills were selected and tested before and after the intervention because these gross motor skills were considered to elicit human interactions and place demands on social skills. Ten social skills were selected, aligned to each program context, taught, and evaluated. This intervention resulted in significant improvements in object-control skills for the participants. Additionally, there were significantly more participants who demonstrated improvements in their performance of the target social skills than who did not demonstrate improvements. These preliminary findings provide support for the feasibility of developing interventions that address social skill deficits in the context of physically active settings for children with ASD.
Seung Ho Chang, Kyungun Kim, Jihyun Lee, and Sukho Lee
Background: Children and youths from low-income families and certain ethnic minority groups show high levels of risk and vulnerability to physical inactivity. The aim of this review was to examine the effectiveness of interventions to increase physical activity (PA) in children and youths from low-income and ethnic minority (LIEM) families. Methods: Eight databases were systematically searched for PA interventions for LIEM children and youths. Twenty-six studies were included in the analyses. Effect sizes (ESs) were calculated using a random-effects model. The ESs were computed using Hedges g with 95% confidence interval. Results: There were small to medium effects of interventions on PA in LIEM children and youth (Q = 1499.193, df = 30, P < .05; I 2 = 97.999). Analyses on the moderator variables showed that ES for participants aged 9–12 years (ES = 0.542, P = .01); intervention length less than 13 weeks (ES = 0.561, P = .01); specialists as the intervention agent (ES = 0.680, P < .05); interventions without technology (ES = 0.363, P = .02); and interventions with a behavioral modification component (ES = 0.336, P = .03) were significantly different from zero. Conclusion: PA intervention can be an effective strategy to increase PA for LIEM children and youths.
Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee, and David L. Porretta
The purpose of this documentary analysis was to examine trends in research published in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly (APAQ) over a 10-yr span. A total of 181 research articles published from 2004 to 2013 were coded and analyzed using the following categories: first-author country affiliation, theoretical framework, intervention, research methods, disability categories, and topical focus. Results indicate high frequencies of nonintervention and group-design studies, as well as a low frequency of studies that describe a theoretical or conceptual framework. Trends in disability of participants and topical focus reflect current interests of researchers publishing in APAQ. While some scholars have suggested that changes in research on adapted physical activity would occur, the results of this analysis suggest that many of these categories remain largely unchanged for research published in APAQ. This study calls attention to similarities between the results of the current analysis and previous ones.
Justin A. Haegele, Jihyun Lee, and David L. Porretta
In the article by Haegele, J.A., Lee, L., and Porretta, D.L., “Research trends in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly from 2004 to 2013”, in Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 32(3), 187–205, an incorrect DOI was printed. The correct DOI for that article is http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/APAQ.2014-0232.
Chang-Hee Ko, Heon-Seock Cynn, Ji-Hyun Lee, Tae-Lim Yoon, and Sil-Ah Choi
Scapular bracing can correct scapular kinematics and restore normal scapular-muscle activity. However, there is little evidence to support the beneficial effects of a figure-8 strap, a type of scapular bracing, on muscle length, scapular alignment, and muscle activity during arm-lifting exercise.
To investigate the immediate effect of a figure-8 strap on pectoralis minor length, scapular alignment, and scapular upward-rotator-muscle activity.
Fifteen male participants (age 22.1 ± 1.9 y, weight 68.2 ± 5.7 kg, height 176.2 ± 3.3 cm) with forward shoulder posture (FSP) were examined for pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment with and without the application of a figure-8 strap.
Main Outcome Measures:
Pectoralis minor length was measured using the Pectoralis Minor Index (PMI), scapular alignment was measured with FSP, and upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior muscle activity were measured using surface electromyography while participants performed an arm-lifting exercise. Data collected with and without applying a figure-8 strap were compared using a paired t-test.
Applying a figure-8 strap significantly decreased the PMI (P = .005) and scapular anterior tilting (P = .000). There were no differences in the muscle activity of the upper trapezius (P = .784), lower trapezius (P = .241), and serratus anterior muscles (P = .639).
A figure-8 strap resulted in positive changes in pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment. The results support its use as a treatment aid in managing pectoralis minor length and scapular alignment during arm-lifting exercises.
Ji-hyun Lee, Heon-seock Cynn, Sil-ah Choi, Tae-lim Yoon, and Hyo-jung Jeong
Gluteus medius (Gmed) weakness is associated with some lower-extremity injuries. People with Gmed weakness might compensate by activating the tensor fasciae latae (TFL). Different hip rotations in the transverse plane may affect Gmed and TFL muscle activity during isometric side-lying hip abduction (SHA).
To compare Gmed and TFL muscle activity and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during SHA exercise with 3 different hip rotations.
The effects of different hip rotations on Gmed, TFL, and the Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio during isometric SHA were analyzed with 1-way, repeated-measures analysis of variance.
University research laboratory.
20 healthy university students were recruited in this study.
Participants performed isometric SHA: frontal SHA with neutral hip (frontal SHAN), frontal SHA with hip medial rotation (frontal SHA-MR), and frontal SHA with hip lateral rotation (frontal SHA-LR).
Main Outcome Measures:
Surface electromyography measured the activity of the Gmed and the TFL. A 1-way repeated-measures analysis of variance assessed the statistical significance of Gmed and TFL muscle activity. When there was a significant difference, a Bonferroni adjustment was performed.
Frontal SHA-MR showed significantly greater Gmed muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .000) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .015). Frontal SHA-LR showed significantly greater TFL muscle activation than frontal SHA-N (P = .002). Frontal SHA-MR also resulted in a significantly greater Gmed:TFL muscle-activity ratio than frontal SHA-N (P = .004) or frontal SHA-LR (P = .000), and frontal SHA-N was significantly greater than frontal SHA-LR (P = .000).
Frontal SHA-MR results in greater Gmed muscle activation and a higher Gmed:TFL muscle ratio.
Seok-Hyun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Chung-Hwi Yi, Ji-Hyun Lee, and Seung-Min Baik
Context: Wall push-up plus (WPP) and wall slide (WS) are commonly prescribed in early rehabilitation to increase serratus anterior (SA) muscle activity. For individuals with scapular winging (SW), synergistic muscles such as upper trapezius (UT) and pectoralis major (PM) may compensate for weak SA during scapular movement. However, no studies have applied isometric horizontal abduction (IHA) during WS in individuals with SW nor have compared it with WPP with IHA. Objectives: This study compared the effects of IHA on shoulder muscle activity during WPP and WS exercises in individuals with SW. Design: Cross-sectional study; 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of observed differences in SA, UT, PM, lower trapezius (LT), and infraspinatus (IS) muscle activities. Setting: Research laboratory. Patients: We recruited 30 individuals with SW comprising 20 men and 10 women. Interventions: The individuals performed WPP and WS exercises with and without IHA using Thera-Band. Main Outcome Measures: Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity of the SA, UT, PM, LT, and IS during the isometric phase of WPP and WS. Maximal voluntary isometric contractions were recorded to normalize electromyographic data. Results: There was no significant interaction between IHA application and exercise type for any of the shoulder muscles. IHA application increased SA (P = .008), UT (P = .001), LT (P = .009), and IS (P = .000) activities and decreased PM (P = .001) activity compared with those without IHA. WS exercises elicited higher PM (P = .017) and LT (P = .011) activities than WPP. Conclusion: WPP and WS with IHA may be effective in increasing the muscle activities of shoulder stabilizers and preventing overactivation of PM activity. WPP may be recommended for individuals with overactivated PM, whereas WS may be used to increase LT activity.