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Joanna Starek and Penny McCullagh

The present study compared the effects of two types of modeling, self- and other-modeling, on learning elementary swimming skills. Specifically, potential differences between the two modeling conditions in swimming performance, swimming self-efficacy, and state anxiety were investigated. Participants were adult volunteers from a college community. Ages ranged from 20 to 58. Each participant took five individual swimming lessons. Results indicated that participants in the self-modeling condition demonstrated better swimming performance by the fourth swim session than participants in the other-modeling condition. No differences were found between modeling conditions on either swimming self-efficacy or state anxiety. Potential reasons for the difference in performance are identified and discussed.