Evaluating coaching performance based on the use of job-specific assessment criteria has been particularly problematic for college athletic departments. The purpose of this study was to assess the importance attached to six dimensions of criteria rated by administrators (n = 87) and coaches (n = 532) in the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union. The six dimensions were team products, personal products, direct task behaviors, indirect task behaviors, administrative maintenance behaviors, and public relation behaviors. The results of Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MÁNOVA) and repeated measures ANOVA showed that, in general, administrators and coaches held similar beliefs about the criteria important for coaching evaluation, but they had some differences in the order of importance of the dimensions. Both groups rated direct task behaviors—that is, the specific abilities or skills used directly in the day-today practice of coaching—as the most important dimension of grouped evaluation criteria.
Joanne MacLean and Dorothy Zakrajsek
Joanne C. MacLean and Packianathan Chelladurai
The purpose of this study was to define the dimensions of coaching performance for coaches and to develop a scale to measure those dimensions. The literature-based model used in this study espoused the use of three broad categories—behavioral product factors, behavioral process factors related to the task, and behavioral process factors related to maintenance of the organization. Each of these broad categories was further subdivided into two classes to yield a model of six dimensions of coaching performance. The dimensions explored were (a) team products, (b) personal products, (c) direct task behaviors, (d) indirect task behaviors, (e) administrative maintenance behaviors, and (f) public relations behaviors. Seventy-seven administrators and 363 coaches from Canadian Intercollegiate Athletic Union institutions responded to the coaching performance scale for the purposes of this study. Item-to-total correlations, confirmatory factor analysis, and internal consistency estimates supported the conceptual model and yielded a psychometrically sound Scale of Coaching Performance (SCP).
Karen E. Danylchuk and Joanne MacLean
As the new millennium begins, we find intercollegiate sport in Canadian universities at a crossroads. Although the Canadian Interuniversity Athletic Union (CIAU), the governing body for university sport in Canada, has a history of recurring issues and challenges, further change is imminent. This paper provides the perspective of two Canadian intercollegiate athletic administrators and sport management academicians on the future of intercollegiate sport in Canada by focusing on five major areas of concern: (a) diversity, (b) governance, (c) funding of athletics, (d) the role and value of athletics, and (e) the changing environmental context of the university. The authors conclude that university sport in Canada will remain embedded within the non-profit, amateur fabric of the Canadian sporting milieu characterized by a participant rather than spectator focus, men's sport domination, decreased funding sources, and pressures to justify its role and value within a rapidly changing environment. The diversity evident throughout the CIAU will continue to have a compelling impact on the organization.
Shannon Kerwin, Joanne MacLean and Dina Bell-Laroche
The theory of practicing values may provide valuable insight into the role of organizational values in sport organizations. This is particularly relevant in the nonprofit sport sector where managers operate with limited budgets and organizations may subscribe to specific ethical-social values related to organizational performance. The purpose of this study was to explore the influence of organizational values on the performance of nonprofit sport organizations and the possible mediating effect of employing a management-by-values approach. Online questionnaires were collected from 24 national sport organizations, with a total sample of 103 participants. Results indicate management by values fully mediates the influence of ethical-social organizational values on organizational performance. These results are explained using the theory of practicing values, which emphasizes the need to intentionally manage values within sport organizations. Implications for research and practice are presented.
Joanne MacLean, Laura Cousens and Martha Barnes
The Canadian Sport Policy advocates for increased interaction among sport organizations as a means to create a more efficient and effective system. The purpose of this study was to explore the existence and nature of linkages among a network of community basketball providers. Network theory focuses on the interconnections of organizations by considering the structural, social, and economic bonds of cooperative behavior. Quantitative data were collected via a questionnaire and analyzed using network software UCINET 6 to assess the numbers and types of linkages among a network of community basketball organizations (n = 10) in one geographical region. Next, in-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with leaders from the organizations and from their provincial/national governing bodies (n = 11) to assess the barriers to linkages among these organizations. Results indicated a loosely coupled network, wherein issues of power and dependence, uncertainty, and the lack of managerial structures to initiate and manage linkages prevailed.
Dina Bell-Laroche, Joanne MacLean, Lucie Thibault and Richard Wolfe
This study examined sport leaders’ perceptions of the use of stated values in the management and performance of their organization. Qualitative data were collected from nine Canadian national sport organizations (NSOs) in a multiple-case studies design, involving analysis of interview transcripts. Results indicated that while many of the NSOs operated from a traditional management by objectives approach, they perceived management by values (MBV) as being important and contributing to enhanced organizational performance. Leaders indicated that more efforts to engage staff members in developing core organizational values and to strategically use values in day-to-day management practice were required. A 4-I Framework describing how an NSO can progress through different stages of strategically using values in management practice was developed. NSO leaders also voiced an interest in embedding organizational values into NSO strategic and other planning processes.