The purpose of this study was to examine the estimated total energy expenditure (TEE) and physical activity patterns of adolescent distance runners. Twenty-eight (20 male, 8 female) adolescent distance runners self-reported their daily physical activity with the Bouchard 3-d diary. Mean values for TEE, 57.4 ± 11.6 and 51.0 ± 9.8 kcal·kg−1·d−1, and activity energy expenditure (AEE), 26.7 ± 10.4 and 21.0 ± 8.8 kcal·kg−1·d−1, when expressed per kilogram body mass were not significantly different between males and females, respectively (P = 0.18). When expressed in absolute terms, TEE, 3609 ± 927 and 2467 ± 426 kcal/d, and AEE, 1688 ± 746 and 977 ± 269 kcal/d, were significantly higher in males than in females, respectively. The results document the energy expenditure and self-reported physical activity of adolescent distance runners and might be used to address recommendations for adequate dietary energy requirements in this group, which in turn is important for energy balance in the context of normal growth, health, and physical performance.
Joey C. Eisenmann and Eric E. Wickel
Humberto M. Carvalho, Manuel J. Coelho-e-Silva, Joey C. Eisenmann and Robert M. Malina
Relationships among chronological age (CA), maturation, training experience, and body dimensions with peak oxygen uptake (VO2max) were considered in male basketball players 14–16 y of age. Data for all players included maturity status estimated as percentage of predicted adult height attained at the time of the study (Khamis-Roche protocol), years of training, body dimensions, and VO2max (incremental maximal test on a treadmill). Proportional allometric models derived from stepwise regressions were used to incorporate either CA or maturity status and to incorporate years of formal training in basketball. Estimates for size exponents (95% CI) from the separate allometric models for VO2max were height 2.16 (1.23–3.09), body mass 0.65 (0.37–0.93), and fat-free mass 0.73 (0.46–1.02). Body dimensions explained 39% to 44% of variance. The independent variables in the proportional allometric models explained 47% to 60% of variance in VO2max. Estimated maturity status (11–16% of explained variance) and training experience (7–11% of explained variance) were significant predictors with either body mass or estimated fat-free mass (P ≤ .01) but not with height. Biological maturity status and training experience in basketball had a significant contribution to VO2max via body mass and fat-free fat mass and also had an independent positive relation with aerobic performance. The results highlight the importance of considering variation associated with biological maturation in aerobic performance of late-adolescent boys.