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  • Author: Joey C. Eisenmann x
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Kate A. Heelan and Joey C. Eisenmann

Background:

It is uncertain as to whether physical activity (PA) may influence the body composition of young children.

Purpose:

To determine the association between PA, media time, and body composition in children age 4 to 7 y.

Methods:

100 children (52 girls, 48 boys) were assessed for body-mass index (BMI), body fat, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass using dual energy x-ray absorbtiometryptiometry (DXA). PA was monitored using accelerometers and media time was reported by parental proxy.

Results:

In general, correlations were low to moderate at best (r < 0.51), but in the expected direction. Total media time and TV were significantly associated with BMI (r = 0.51, P < 0.05) and FM (r = 0.29 to 0.30, P < 0.05) in girls. In boys, computer usage was significantly associated with FM in boys (r = 0.31, P < 0.05).

Conclusion:

The relatively low correlations suggest that other factors may influence the complex, multi-factorial body composition phenotype of young children.

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Kelly R. Laurson, Joey A. Lee and Joey C. Eisenmann

Background:

Physical activity (PA), television time (TV), and sleep duration (SLP) are considered individual risk factors for adolescent obesity. Our aim was to investigate the concurrent influence of meeting PA, SLP, and TV recommendations on adolescent obesity utilizing 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance Survey (YRBSS) data.

Methods:

Subjects included 9589 (4874 females) high school students. PA, SLP, and TV were categorized utilizing established national recommendations and youth were cross-tabulated into 1 of 8 groups based on meeting or not meeting each recommendation. Logistic models were used to examine the odds of obesity for each group. Results: Youth meeting the PA recommendation were not at increased odds of obesity, regardless of SLP or TV status. However, not meeting any single recommendation, in general, led to increased odds of not meeting the other two. In boys, 11.8% met all recommendations while 14.1% met 0 recommendations. In girls, only 5.0% met all recommendations while 17.8% met none.

Conclusions:

Boys and girls not meeting any of the recommendations were 4.0 and 3.8 times more likely to be obese compared with their respective referent groups. Further research considering the simultaneous influence these risk factors may have on obesity and on one another is warranted.

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Joey C. Eisenmann, P.T. Katzmarzyk and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

In recent years, it has been noted that children and youth are physically inactive, and physical activity levels have declined over the past decades. However, few empirical studies have been conducted to test this assumption. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine leisure-time physical activity levels among Canadian adolescents 12–19 years of age.

Methods:

Age, sex, geographic, and temporal trends in leisure-time physical activity energy expenditure (AEE) were examined using data from 5 national surveys conducted between 1981 and 1998. AEE was calculated from participants’ questionnaire responses on physical activity participation. General linear models were used to examine the differences in AEE across survey years, geographic regions, sexes, and age groups.

Results:

Males and 12–14-year-olds displayed greater AEE than females and 15–19-year-olds, respectively, and AEE was lowest in Quebec and highest in the West. AEE increased between the 1981 and 1988 surveys and has since remained relatively stable. The prevalence of subjects meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (3 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation increased from 1981 to 1988. Since 1988, the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has decreased in 12–14 year old boys and remained relatively stable in the other groups. In 1998, about 45% of males and 35% of females met the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation. In 1998, about 20% of 12–19-year-old males and 12–14-year-old females met the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 (6 kcal · kg−1 · d−1) recommendation, while about 10% of 15–19-year-old females met this recommendation. In females, the prevalence of those meeting the 25.1 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 recommendation has remained relatively stable (about 10%) since 1981 except for an increase between 1996 and 1998 in 12–14-year-old girls. In males, a similar pattern, but not as dramatic, of that observed for the prevalence of those meeting the 12.6 kJ · kg−1 · d−1 emerged—that is, an increase between 1981 and 1988 and then a decrease in 12–14-year-old boys and a stable pattern in 15–19-year-old boys.

Conclusion:

Although self-reported leisure-time physical activity appears to have increased since 1981, a majority of Canadian adolescents do not meet current recommendations for physical activity.

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Joey C. Eisenmann, R. Todd Bartee and Krystal D. Damori

Purpose:

The purposes of this study were (a) to describe the prevalence of participation in moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and overweight and obesity, and (b) to examine the associations between physical activity and weight status in a sample of university students from a rural university.

Methods:

Data from a representative sample of 773 (361 women, 412 men) students participating in the National College Health Assessment Survey were examined. MVPA and height and body mass were self-reported. The body-mass index (BMI) was derived and used to classify subjects as normal, overweight, or obese.

Results:

Approximately 20% of students were inactive (0 d/wk), and 23% met the recommended amount of MVPA (≥5 d/wk). Prevalence of overweight and obesity was, respectively, 35.7% and 8.5% in men and, respectively, 15.6% and 8.2% in women. Analysis of variance revealed the mean BMI was not significantly different across levels of MVPA. Odds ratios showed higher levels of MVPA were significantly associated with lower risk of obesity in men but not women.

Conclusion:

A large percentage of subjects are inactive or insufficiently active, and self-reported moderate to vigorous physical activity is significantly related to risk of obesity in men. Future studies should measure habitual physical activity or energy expenditure and body composition. Additional factors affecting obesity, such as television viewing and other sedentary behaviors, dietary intake, and heritability, should also be considered.

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Kelly R. Laurson, Gregory J. Welk and Joey C. Eisenmann

Background:

The purpose of this study was to provide a practical demonstration of the impact of monitoring frame and metric when assessing pedometer-determined physical activity (PA) in youth.

Methods:

Children (N = 1111) were asked to wear pedometers over a 7-day period during which time worn and steps were recorded each day. Varying data-exclusion criteria were used to demonstrate changes in estimates of PA. Steps were expressed using several metrics and criteria, and construct validity was demonstrated via correlations with adiposity.

Results:

Meaningful fluctuations in average steps per day and percentage meeting PA recommendations were apparent when different criteria were used. Children who wore the pedometer longer appeared more active, with each minute the pedometer was worn each day accounting for an approximate increase of 11 and 8 steps for boys and girls, respectively (P < .05). Using more restrictive exclusion criteria led to stronger correlations between indices of steps per day, steps per minute, steps per leg length, steps per minute per leg length, and obesity.

Conclusion:

Wear time has a meaningful impact on estimates of PA. This should be considered when determining exclusion criteria and making comparisons between studies. Results also suggest that incorporating wear time per day and leg length into the metric may increase validity of PA estimates.

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Eric E. Wickel, Joey C. Eisenmann and Gregory J. Welk

Background:

This study compared physical activity levels among early, average, and late maturing boys and girls.

Methods:

Physical activity was assessed with an Actigraph accelerometer in 161 (76 boys, 85 girls) 9 to 14 year olds over 7 consecutive days. Anthropometric variables were measured and the maturity offset (ie, years from peak height velocity) was predicted. Biological maturity groups (early, average, and late) were created based on the mean estimated age at peak height velocity for boys and girls separately.

Results:

Levels of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) were similar between early, average, and late maturing boys and girls after adjusting for differences in chronological age. Levels of MVPA progressively declined across chronological age in boys and girls (P < .001) and gender differences existed at 10-, 12-, and 13-years, with boys having higher levels than girls (P < .05). When aligned according to biological age, gender-related differences in MVPA did not exist.

Conclusions:

Within this sample of 9 to 14 year old boys and girls, there were no significant differences in MVPA among early, average, and late maturing individuals.

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Megan E. Holmes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Panteleimon Ekkekakis and Douglas Gentile

Background:

We examined whether physical activity modifies the relationship between stress and the metabolic risk score in 8- to 18-year-old males (n = 37).

Methods:

Physical activity (PA) and television (TV)/videogame (VG) use were assessed via accelerometer and questionnaire, respectively. Stress was determined from self-report measures. A metabolic risk score (MRS) was created by summing age-standardized residuals for waist circumference, mean arterial pressure, glycosylated hemoglobin, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol.

Results:

Correlations between PA and MRS were low (r < –.13), and TV and VG were moderately associated with MRS (r = .39 and .43, respectively). Correlations between stress-related variables and MRS ranged from r = .19 to .64. After partitioning by PA, significant correlations were observed in the low PA group between school- and sports-related self-esteem and anxiety with the MRS.

Conclusions:

The results provide suggestive evidence that PA might modify the relationship between stress and MRS in male adolescents.

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Heather M. Hayes, Joey C. Eisenmann, Karin Pfeiffer and Joseph J. Carlson

Background:

The purpose of this study was to determine the independent and joint association of weight status and physical activity on resting blood pressure and C-reactive protein in children.

Methods:

Participants were 174 (71 males, 103 females) children (mean age = 10.5 ± 0.4 yrs). Physical activity was self-reported, body mass index was calculated from measured height and body mass, and blood pressure was measured according to standard procedures. A subset of 91 children had C-reactive protein measured by fingerstick blood sample. Four weight/physical activity groups were created by cross tabulation of weight status classification and physical activity level.

Results:

The prevalence of low physical activity (< 5 days/wk moderate-vigorous activity) did not differ between overweight and normal weight children (50%). Physical activity was not correlated with C-reactive protein (r = 0.01; P = 0.91) and C-reactive protein was not significantly different between physical activity groups (P = 0.87). Physical activity did not modify the difference in blood pressure or C-reactive protein within weight categories.

Conclusions:

Fatness (specifically overweight and obesity), but not physical activity, was shown to be associated with blood pressure and C-reactive protein levels in children. Physical activity did not attenuate blood pressure or C-reactive protein in overweight and obese children.

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Megan E. Holmes, Jim Pivarnik, Karin Pfeiffer, Kimberly S. Maier, Joey C. Eisenmann and Martha Ewing

Background:

The role of psychosocial stress in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome is receiving increased attention and has led to examination of whether physical activity may moderate the stress-metabolic syndrome relationship. The current study examined relationships among physical activity, stress, and metabolic syndrome in adolescents.

Methods:

Participants (N = 126; 57 girls, 69 boys) were assessed for anthropometry, psychosocial stress, physical activity, and metabolic syndrome variables; t tests were used to examine sex differences, and regression analysis was used to assess relationships among variables controlling for sex and maturity status.

Results:

Mean body mass index approached the 75th percentile for both sexes. Typical sex differences were observed for systolic blood pressure, time spent in moderate and vigorous physical activity, and perceived stress. Although stress was not associated with MetS (β = –.001, P = .82), a modest, positive relationship was observed with BMI (β = .20, P = .04).

Conclusions:

Strong relationships between physical activity and stress with MetS or BMI were not found in this sample. Results may be partially explained by overall good physical health status of the participants. Additional research in groups exhibiting varying degrees of health is needed.

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Kara N. Dentro, Kim Beals, Scott E. Crouter, Joey C. Eisenmann, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Brian E. Saelens, Susan B. Sisson, Donna Spruijt-Metz, Melinda S. Sothern and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

The National Physical Activity Plan Alliance partnered with physical activity experts to develop a report card that provides a comprehensive assessment of physical activity among United States children and youth.

Methods:

The 2014 U.S. Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth includes 10 indicators: overall physical activity levels, sedentary behaviors, active transportation, organized sport participation, active play, health-related fitness, family and peers, school, community and the built environment, and government strategies and investments. Data from nationally representative surveys were used to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the physical activity indicators. The Committee used the best available data source to grade the indicators using a standard rubric.

Results:

Approximately one-quarter of children and youth 6 to 15 years of age were at least moderately active for 60 min/day on at least 5 days per week. The prevalence was lower among youth compared with younger children, resulting in a grade of D- for overall physical activity levels. Five of the remaining 9 indicators received grades ranging from B- to F, whereas there was insufficient data to grade 4 indicators, highlighting the need for more research in some areas.

Conclusions:

Physical activity levels among U.S. children and youth are low and sedentary behavior is high, suggesting that current infrastructure, policies, programs, and investments in support of children’s physical activity are not sufficient.