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Viviene A. Temple and John T. Foley

The development of motor skill proficiency during childhood is cumulative and influenced by physical growth and maturation, genetic potential, affordances in the physical and social environment, and the interactions between these factors. Therefore, typically during childhood, the trajectory of change in motor proficiency is positive. To lend developmental validity to the revision of the Test of Gross Motor Development—3rd edition (TGMD-3), this longitudinal study examined whether the skills and subtests of the TGMD-3 changed as might be expected from grade 3 to grade 4 among 277 children. The findings of this study lend support to the developmental validity of the TGMD-3 in that (1) there was within-individual change in the expected direction for both locomotor and ball skills, (2) consistent with the majority of research, boys had significantly higher ball skills scores than girls in both grade 3 and grade 4, and (3) the mean percent of maximum possible scores were in the range of approximately 60–75, which demonstrates that the majority of 8- and 9-year-old children had not reached a ceiling on this test.

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Michael W. Beets and John T. Foley

Background:

Much of the research conducted to date implies overweight youth exhibit uniform active and sedentary behavioral patterns. This approach negates the possibility that multiple co-occurring, and seemingly contrasting, behaviors may manifest within the same individual. We present a substantive dialogue on alternative analytical approaches to identifying risk-related active/sedentary behavioral patterns associated with overweight in adolescents.

Methods:

Comparisons were made among latent profile analysis (LPA), cluster analysis (CA), and multinomial logistic regression (MLR). A cross sectional sample of youth (N = 6603; 12−18 yrs) completed a questionnaire assessing: physical activity (PA); competing activities (COMP); and sedentary activities (SED). Demographics associated with PA (age, sex, BMI) were used as covariates/predictors.

Results:

Comparisons among methods revealed that LPA and CA detected subgroupings of behavioral patterns associated with overweight, each unique in regards to behaviors and demographic characteristics, whereas MLR results followed established associations of low PA and high SED without subgroup separation.

Conclusions:

Use of LPA and CA provides a rich understanding of behavioral patterns and the related demographic characteristics. Decisions guiding the selection of analytical techniques are discussed.

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John T. Foley, Meghann Lloyd and Viviene A. Temple

This study examined temporal trends in body mass index (BMI) among United States adults with intellectual disability (ID) participating in Special Olympics from 2005 to 2010. In addition, the prevalence of obesity was compared with published National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) statistics. After data cleaning, 6,004 height and weight records (male = 57%) were available from the Special Olympics International Healthy Athletes Health Promotion database for the calculation of BMI. Rates of overweight and obesity were very high but generally stable over time. Compared with NHANES statistics, the prevalence of obesity was significantly higher for Special Olympics female participants in each data collection cycle. Integrated efforts to understand the social, environmental, behavioral, and biological determinants of obesity and among Special Olympics participants are needed.

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Phillip C. Usera, John T. Foley and Joonkoo Yun

The purpose of this study was to cross-validate skinfold and anthropometric measurements for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Estimated body fat of 14 individuals with DS and 13 individuals without DS was compared between criterion measurement (BOP POD®) and three prediction equations. Correlations between criterion and field-based tests for non-DS group and DS groups ranged from .81 – .94 and .11 – .54, respectively. Root-Mean-Squared-Error was employed to examine the amount of error on the field-based measurements. A MANOVA indicated significant differences in accuracy between groups for Jackson’s equation and Lohman’s equation. Based on the results, efforts should now be directed toward developing new equations that can assess the body composition of individuals with DS in a clinically feasible way.

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Stamatis Agiovlasitis, Robert W. Motl, John T. Foley and Bo Fernhall

This study examined the relationship between energy expenditure and wrist accelerometer output during walking in persons with and without Down syndrome (DS). Energy expenditure in metabolic equivalent units (METs) and activity-count rate were respectively measured with portable spirometry and a uniaxial wrist accelerometer in 17 persons with DS (age: 24.7 ± 6.9 years; 9 women) and 21 persons without DS (age: 26.3 ± 5.2 years; 12 women) during six over-ground walking trials. Combined groups regression showed that the relationship between METs and activity-count rate differed between groups (p < .001). Separate models for each group included activity-count rate and squared activity-count rate as significant predictors of METs (p ≤ .005). Prediction of METs appeared accurate based on Bland-Altman plots and the lack of between-group difference in mean absolute prediction error (DS: 17.07%; Non-DS: 18.74%). Although persons with DS show altered METs to activity-count rate relationship during walking, prediction of their energy expenditure from wrist accelerometry appears feasible.

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Michael W. Beets, Arissa G. Eilert, Kenneth H. Pitetti and John T. Foley

Child-parent pairs (n = 109) completed a questionnaire assessing whether changes in normal physical activity levels occurred (child) or were observed (parent) when the children wore a pedometer for 7 days. Over two-thirds of the children (78.5%) and almost half of the parents (47.3%) indicated an increase in the child’s normal physical activity. Reduced television viewing (75.2%) and increased outdoor play on the weekend (35.8%) were the most frequently reported means of behavior change as reported by the children and parents, respectively. Results indicate that both children and parents perceive a reactive effect to wearing an unsealed pedometer.

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Michael W. Beets, John T. Foley, Daniel W.S. Tindall and Lauren J. Lieberman

Thirty-five youth with visual impairments (13.5 ± 2.1yrs, 13 girls and 22 boys) walked four 100-meter distances while wearing two units (right and left placement) of three brands of voice-announcement (VA) pedometers (CentriosTM Talking Pedometer, TALKiNG Pedometer, and Sportline Talking Calorie Pedometer 343) and a reference pedometer (NL2000). Registered pedometer steps for each trial were recorded, compared to actual steps assessed via digital video. Inter-unit agreement between right and left VA pedometer placement was low (ICC range .37 to .76). A systematic error was observed for the VA pedometers on the left placement (error range 5.6% to 12.2%), while right placement VA pedometers were at or below ± 3% from actual steps (range 2.1% to 3.3%). The reference pedometer was unaffected by placement (ICC .98, error ~1.4%). Overall, VA pedometers demonstrated acceptable accuracy for the right placement, suggesting this position is necessary for youth with visual impairments.

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Michael W. Beets, Cindy Combs, Kenneth H. Pitetti, Melinda Morgan, Rebecca R. Bryan and John T. Foley

The purpose of the study was to examine the accuracy of pedometer steps and activity time (Walk4Life, WL) for youth with developmental disabilities. Eighteen youth (11 girls, 7 boys) 4-14 years completed six 80-meter self-paced walking trials while wearing a pedometer at five waist locations (front right, front left, back right, back left, middle back). Trials were video taped to determine actual steps and activity time. Time exhibited a smaller percent error in comparison to steps across locations. Apart from the front left, location had minimal influence on accuracy. The WL demonstrates acceptable accuracy for steps and activity time.

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Luis Columna, Luz Amelia Hoyos-Cuartas, John T. Foley, Jose Rafael Prado-Perez, Dana Milena Chavarro-Bermeo, Ana Lorena Mora, Maria Antonieta Ozols-Rosales, Luis Álvarez-del Cid and Ivana Rivero

Purpose:

To analyze Latin American physical education (PE) teachers’ intentions toward teaching students with disabilities.

Participants:

474 in-service PE teachers from 5 different Latin American countries.

Method:

Descriptive survey. Data were collected using a modified version of the Physical Educators’ Intention Toward Teaching Individuals With Disabilities Survey. Multiple-regression analysis showed significant differences in the attitudes of teachers by gender, the number of adapted-PE courses taken, and years of experience working with individuals with disabilities.

Results:

The predictor variables had a significant impact on the participants’ intentions toward teaching children with disabilities; however, the effects of these predictor variables differed between countries.