This study examined the values, beliefs, and norms of undergraduate sport management and recreation administration student’s related to environmental awareness and personal actions utilizing Stern’s (2000) value-belief-norm (VBN) framework. Students (N = 341) in sport-related programs at two universities completed the survey. Structural equation modeling found the VBN framework explained both personal and organizational environmental behavior. Values were a significant predictor of environmental beliefs. Beliefs significantly explained personal norms, but not behavior. Personal norms were the strongest indicator for proenvironmental action and predicted personal and organizational conservation behavior equally. This study extends research related to environmental behavior and provides a departure point to improve understandings of the current foundational environmental perspectives held by future sport and recreation managers.
Jonathan M. Casper and Michael E. Pfahl
Jonathan Casper, Michael Pfahl and Mark McSherry
The relationship of sport to sustainability management is relatively unknown. Despite the increasing recognition of the growing role of athletics in regard to environmental sustainability, it remains unclear what role athletics departments have with regard to environmental action and what is currently being done now. The purpose of this study is to examine American intercollegiate athletics department personnel in relation to their organization’s sustainability practices, organizational strategies, and personal perspectives at National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) universities. Athletics department members (N = 97) who were most responsible for sustainability initiatives responded to a survey designed to assess awareness levels and concern for environmental issues and the strategies and practices at work in their respective athletics departments. Findings based on prioritization, planning, decision-making, and use of initiatives using frequencies and means are reported. Differences, using t tests were also compared based on BCS or non-BCS standing. Results show that although environmental concern is high, there is disconnect between concern and action perhaps due to a lack of communication between the athletics department and the general university, cost concerns, and a lack of knowledge about sustainability initiatives. Implications related to the need for better communication between the athletics department/university and improved planning and prioritization is discussed.
Katharine Kelley, Michelle G. Harrolle and Jonathan M. Casper
Game day spending is critical for National Hockey League (NHL) teams’ profitability as nearly half the NHL franchises generate more than two-thirds of their annual income from ticket sales. The purpose of our study was to analyze financial data for 123 regular season home games to understand the influence of day of week, special promotions, opponent, month in season, time of game, and season on ticket sales, merchandise per cap sales, and food and beverage per cap sales for a NHL team. Ordinary Least Squares regression results revealed that the game day variables included in the models explained 52% of the variance in ticket sales, 70% of the variance in merchandise per cap sales, and 48% of the variance in food and beverage per cap sales (p < .05). Findings provide practical implications for teams who hope to maximize game day revenue.