The purpose of this study was to examine three frameworks, (a) process-product, (b) student mediation, and (c) classroom ecology, to understand physical activity (PA) behavior of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school inclusive physical education (PE). A total of 13 physical educators teaching inclusive PE and their 503 students, including 22 students with different disabilities, participated in this study. A series of multilevel regression analyses indicated that physical educators’ teaching behavior and students’ implementation intentions play important roles in promoting the students’ PA in middle school inclusive PE settings when gender, disability, lesson content, instructional model, and class location are considered simultaneously. The findings suggest that the ecological framework should be considered to effectively promote PA of adolescents with and without disabilities in middle school PE classes.
Layne Case and Joonkoo Yun
Despite the rising interest in intervention for children with autism spectrum disorder, the extent to which interventions are effective on gross motor outcomes is currently unknown. The purpose of this study was to analyze the effect of different intervention approaches on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder using meta-analysis. A total of 18 studies met the inclusion criteria for quantitative analysis. Pre- and posttest means and SDs were extracted to calculate effect sizes. Potential moderator variables were chosen based on important intervention characteristics. The results suggest that interventions have a large effect on gross motor outcomes among children with autism spectrum disorder (δ = 0.99, SE = 0.19, p < .001, 95% confidence interval [0.62, 1.36]). The interventions that were 16 total hours or longer had a significantly larger effect than those less than 16 hr. In addition, the interventions in experimental settings had significantly larger effects than the interventions in practical settings. Future interventions should consider intensity, including not only the duration of the intervention but also the intensity in which specific intervention goals are targeted.
Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich
The purposes of this tutorial are threefold: (a) to clarify the meaning of measurement validity, (b) to provide appropriate validation procedures for use by researchers in adapted physical activity, and (c) to raise the awareness of the limitations of the traditional views on measurement validity. Several validation procedures are described with specific examples from adapted physical activity research based on traditional approaches of providing validity evidence. Conceptual and empirical limitations of the traditional validity framework are discussed. We recommend that several categories of validity evidence should be reported in research studies. We encourage practicing the unified concept of measurement validity (Messick, 1993, 1995) in adapted physical activity research and practice.
Jennifer A. Beamer and Joonkoo Yun
With an increase in the presence of students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in the general physical education (GPE) classroom, understanding the current state of GPE teachers’ beliefs and behaviors for including these students is warranted. The current study aimed to examine the beliefs and self-reported behaviors of GPE teachers’ inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, the study examined potential factors affecting their inclusion behaviors. Using a national stratified random sample, participants were 142 current GPE teachers who submitted surveys anonymously online. Results from a regression analysis indicate that teachers’ experience, graduate coursework in adapted physical education (APE), and perceptions of strength in undergraduate training in APE significantly predicted their self-reported behavior for including students with ASD. Although the participant response rate is considerably low, this study provides some support toward the importance of teacher education programs for inclusion training.
Joonkoo Yun and Deborah R. Shapiro
This study examined the psychometric properties of Ulrich’s (1988) Actual Physical Competence Scale for children with mental retardation. A total of 139 children with MR, 7 to 13 years of age participated. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated that a multidimensional model of skill assessment captures the motor performance of those with MR more accurately than a unidimensional model. Indices of goodness of fit for the multidimensional model were GFI = .91, RMSEA = .09, (χ2/df) = 2.15, and CFI = .93. Test-retest reliability and internal consistency for the total test battery was ICC = .91 and α = .62, respectively. When evaluating movement skills of children with mental retardation, a multidimensional model incorporating both locomotor and object control skills is recommended.
Joonkoo Yun and Dale A. Ulrich
The purpose of this paper was to examine the relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with mild mental retardation (MMR). Participants were 54 males and 55 females, M age = 9.47. Pearson correlation indicated no significant relationship between perceived and actual physical competence in children with MMR. When the age factor was partialed out, the resulting partial correlations revealed a significant moderate relationship between the two variables for older children with MMR. A 6 × 2 (Age × Gender) MANOVA revealed a significant interaction between age and gender on perceived physical competence. No gender difference was found in younger children, whereas in older children, males had significantly higher perceived competence than females. A possible explanation for the nonsignificant correlation between perceived and actual physical competence in younger children may be insufficient cognitive functioning for making self-evaluations.
E. Andrew Pitchford and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of spring-levered and piezoelectric pedometers for adults with and without Down syndrome (DS). Twenty adults with DS and 24 adults without a disability walked for two minute periods on a predetermined indoor course at a self-selected, slower and faster pace. Pedometer recorded and criterion observed steps were compared to determine pedometer error. There was a significant interaction between pedometer model and walking speed. Piezoelectric pedometers demonstrated significantly less measurement error than spring-levered pedometers, particularly at slower walking speeds. There were also significant differences in pedometer error between adults with and without DS. The study concludes that pedometer measurement error is significantly different for adults with DS but also that piezoelectric pedometers can be used in the future to measure walking activity for adults with and without DS.
So-Yeun Kim and Joonkoo Yun
This study examined sources of variability in physical activity (PA) of youth with developmental disabilities (DD), and determined the optimal number of days required for monitoring PA. Sixteen youth with DD wore two pedometers and two accelerometers for 9 days, including 5 weekdays (W) and 2 weekends (WK). A two-facet in fully crossed two-way ANOVAs were employed to estimate sources of variability across W, WK, and W and WK combined (WWK) for each device. Primary sources of variability were the person and the person by day interaction for both devices. Using a pedometer, four, six, and eight days of measurements were required to determine typical PA levels of the participants during W, WK, and WWK, respectively. Using one accelerometer, four days of measurements were estimated across all days.
Phillip C. Usera, John T. Foley and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to cross-validate skinfold and anthropometric measurements for individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Estimated body fat of 14 individuals with DS and 13 individuals without DS was compared between criterion measurement (BOP POD®) and three prediction equations. Correlations between criterion and field-based tests for non-DS group and DS groups ranged from .81 – .94 and .11 – .54, respectively. Root-Mean-Squared-Error was employed to examine the amount of error on the field-based measurements. A MANOVA indicated significant differences in accuracy between groups for Jackson’s equation and Lohman’s equation. Based on the results, efforts should now be directed toward developing new equations that can assess the body composition of individuals with DS in a clinically feasible way.
Jaehun Jung, Willie Leung, Bridgette Marie Schram and Joonkoo Yun
The purpose of this study was to explore the current levels of physical activity among youth with disabilities using meta-analysis. The search identified 11 publications including 729 participants (age 4–20 yr). The overall effect size for 11 studies was Hedges g = 0.60 (SE = 0.18, 95% confidence interval [CI] [0.24, 0.96], p < .05, k = 11) using a random-effects model. The findings suggest that differences in physical activity levels between youth with and without disabilities are complex. Results indicated that youth without disabilities engaged in higher levels of physical activity of moderate to vigorous intensity (g = 0.66, SE = 0.18, p < .05). However, no differences were found in light-intensity physical activity (g = −0.03, SE = 0.16, p > .85). Results also suggested that the differences in physical activity between youth with and without disabilities were affected by age (<12 yr, g = 0.83, SE = 0.24, 95% CI [0.37, 1.29], p < .05, and >13 yr, g = 0.37, SE = 0.10, 95% CI [0.18, 0.57], p < .05; Q value = 3.20, df = 1, p < .05), with children with disabilities engaging in less physical activity than children without disabilities in younger ages. Differences in physical activity level between youth with and without disabilities are functions of intensity of physical activity and age but may not be of type of disability (Q value = 0.22, df = 1, p > .6).