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Jorge R. Fernandez-Santos, Jonatan R. Ruiz, Jose Luis Gonzalez-Montesinos, and Jose Castro-Piñero

The aim of this study was to analyze the reliability and the validity of the handgrip, basketball throw and pushups tests in children aged 6–12 years. One hundred and eighty healthy children (82 girls) agreed to participate in this study. All the upper body muscular fitness tests were performed twice (7 days apart) whereas the 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press test was performed 2 days after the first session of testing. All the tests showed a high reproducibility (ICC > 0.9) except the push-ups test (intertrial difference = 0.77 ± 2.38, p < .001 and the percentage error = 9%). The handgrip test showed the highest association with 1RM bench press test (r = .79, p < .01; R 2 = .621). In conclusion the handgrip and basketball throw tests are shown as reliable and valid tests to assess upper body muscular strength in children. More studies are needed to assess the validity and the reliability of the upper body muscular endurance tests in children.

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Laura Garcia-Cervantes, Sara D’Haese, Rocio Izquierdo-Gomez, Carmen Padilla-Moledo, Jorge R. Fernandez-Santos, Greet Cardon, and Oscar Luis Veiga


The aim was to investigate the association of (i) parental, sibling, and friend coparticipation in physical activity (PA); and (ii) independent mobility (IM) for walking, cycling, and taking public transport with objectively measured nonschool PA on week- and weekend days in different school grades.


A total of 1376 Spanish youngsters (50.8% boys; mean age 11.96 ± 2.48 years) participated in the study. Participants reported the frequency of their parental, sibling, and best friend coparticipation in PA with them and their IM for walking, cycling, and taking public transport. PA was objectively measured by accelerometry.


Coparticipation in PA and IM were more frequently related to nonschool PA among adolescents than among children. Friend coparticipation in PA was positively associated with higher levels of nonschool PA in adolescents. IM for walking and IM for cycling in adolescents were related to nonschool PA on weekdays.


Our results highlight the need for age-focused interventions and the integration of family and friends to promote PA in youth.