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  • Author: José A. Morais x
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Guy El Hajj Boutros, José A. Morais, and Antony D. Karelis

Physical activity plays an important role for achieving healthy aging by promoting independence and increasing the quality of life. However, current guidelines for physical activity in older adults may be difficult to achieve in an older population. Indeed, there is evidence to suggest that increasing exercise intensity in older adults may be associated with greater reductions in the risk of cardiovascular disease and mortality. Therefore, the idea prescribing high-intensity exercise protocols such as high-intensity interval training and high-intensity resistance training becomes an intriguing strategy for healthy aging. Collectively, the literature review in this viewpoint will briefly focus on summarizing alternative/novel time-efficient approaches in physical activity toward healthy aging. Our goal is to hopefully open a discussion on possibly revising the current physical activity guidelines in older adults.

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Mário Esteves, Carina Silva, Sofia S. Pereira, Tiago Morais, Ângela Moreira, Madalena M. Costa, Mariana P. Monteiro, and José A. Duarte

Introduction: Benefits of regular physical exercise were demonstrated as preventive and coadjuvant nonpharmacological anticancer therapy. However, the role of exercise in modulating prostate cancer behavior has yet to be established. Methods: Prostate tumors were induced in C57BL/6 male mice (n = 28) by subcutaneous inoculation of a suspension of murine androgen-independent RM1 cells (1.5 × 105 cells/500 μL phosphate-buffered saline) in the dorsal region. Mice were randomly allocated into 2 study groups: sedentary tumor-induced (n = 14) and exercised tumor-induced (n = 14). Exercise consisted of voluntary running in wheeled cages. Mice (n = 7 per group) were sacrificed either 14 or 28 days after cell inoculation to evaluate tumor weight and percentage of area occupied by immunohistochemistry stained cells for Ki-67 and TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling, used as surrogate markers of cell proliferation and apoptosis, respectively. Results: Compared with sedentary tumor-induced mice, the tumors developed by exercised tumor-induced mice were significantly smaller at 14 days (0.17 [0.12] g vs 0.48 [0.24] g, P < .05) and at 28 days (0.92 [0.73] g vs 2.09 [1.31] g, P < .05), with smaller Ki-67 and greater TdT-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end-labeling stained areas (P < .05). Conclusion: These results suggest that regular voluntary running inhibits prostate cancer cell growth by reducing cell proliferation and enhancing apoptosis.

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho, and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CD a). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CD a). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CD a (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CD a (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.