Human movement is complex, presenting clinical and research challenges regarding how it is described and investigated. This paper discusses the commonalities and differences on how human movement is conceptualized from neuroscientific and clinical perspectives with respect to postural control; the limitations of linear measures; movement efficiency with respect to metabolic energy cost and selectivity; and, how muscle synergy analysis may contribute to our understanding of movement variability. We highlight the role of sensory information on motor performance with respect to the base of support and alignment, illustrating a potential disconnect between the clinical and neuroscientific perspectives. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the commonalities and differences in how movement concepts are defined and operationalized by Bobath clinicians and the neuroscientific community to facilitate a common understanding and open the dialogue on the research practice gap.
Julie Vaughan-Graham, Kara Patterson, Karl Zabjek and Cheryl A. Cott
Neelesh K. Nadkarni, Karl Zabjek, Betty Lee, William E. McIlroy and Sandra E. Black
Changes in gait parameters induced by the concomitant performance of one of two cognitive tasks activating working memory and spatial attention, was examined in healthy young adults (YA) and older adults (OA). There was a main effect of task condition on gait-speed (p = .02), stride-length (p < .001) and double-support time (p = .04) independent of the group. There were no significant differences between working memory and spatial attention associated gait changes. Working-memory and spatial-attention dual-tasking led to a decrease in gait-speed (p = .09 and 0.01) and stride-length (p = .04 and 0.01) and increase in double-support time (p = .01 and 0.03) in YA and decrease in stride-length (p = .04 and 0.01) alone in OA. Cognitive task associated changes in gait may be a function of limited attentional resources irrespective of the type of cognitive task.
Matthew J. Leineweber, Dominik Wyss, Sophie-Krystale Dufour, Claire Gane, Karl Zabjek, Laurent J. Bouyer, Désirée B. Maltais, Julien I.A. Voisin and Jan Andrysek
This study evaluated the effects of intense physical exercise on postural stability of children with cerebral palsy (CP). Center of pressure (CoP) was measured in 9 typically developing (TD) children and 8 with CP before and after a maximal aerobic shuttle-run test (SRT) using a single force plate. Anteroposterior and mediolateral sway velocities, sway area, and sway regularity were calculated from the CoP data and compared between pre- and postexercise levels and between groups. Children with CP demonstrated significantly higher pre-SRT CoP velocities than TD children in the sagittal (18.6 ± 7.6 vs. 6.75 1.78 m/s) and frontal planes (15.4 ± 5.3 vs. 8.04 ± 1.51 m/s). Post-SRT, CoP velocities significantly increased for children with CP in the sagittal plane (27.0 ± 1.2 m/s), with near-significant increases in the frontal plane (25.0 ± 1.5m/s). Similarly, children with CP evidenced larger sway areas than the TD children both pre- and postexercise. The diminished postural stability in children with CP after short but intense physical exercise may have important implications including increased risk of falls and injury.