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Emi Tsuda, Phillip Ward, Yilin Li, Kelsey Higginson, Kyuil Cho, Yaohui He and Jianzhen Su

Purpose: Common and specialized content knowledge (CCK and SCK) and performance are requirements in the Society of Health and Physical Educators America initial physical education teacher education (PETE) standards, yet relationships among these requirements are unclear. The authors examined relationships among CCK, SCK, and performance. Method: A total of 127 students were recruited from basic instruction courses (non-PETE majors; n = 51) in which they were taught how to perform a sport and PETE major courses (PETE majors; n = 76) and a sport and SCK. Pre- and posttests on CCK, SCK, and performance were conducted in volleyball, basketball, badminton, and tennis. Results: No relationships among three measures were found. The non-PETE majors improved their scores in CCK and performance, whereas the PETE majors improved their scores in all three measures (CCK, p < .001–.002; SCK, p = 001–.002; and performance, p < .001–.006). Discussion/Conclusion: Teaching CCK, SCK, and performance is essential for the professional development of teachers as improving one does not appear to improve another. The study also demonstrates that CCK, SCK, and performance can be taught together within a course.