The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of occupational socialization on the perspectives and practices of sport pedagogy doctoral students in terms of physical education (PE) teaching and physical education teacher education (PETE). Participants were 12 students. Data were collected through formal and informal interviews, observations, and self-reflective posters. They were analyzed using analytic induction and constant comparison. Key findings were that doctoral students espoused both conservative and liberal forms of PE and PETE. These views were shaped by the various phases of their socialization. Doctoral students recalled being oriented to teaching and coaching. The longer coaching orientations remained intact, the more likely they were to espouse conservative versions of PE and PETE. The students’ graduate education was shown to be particularly potent and powerful. This appeared to be due to influential faculty, a practitioner focus in master’s degree programs, and engagement in undergraduate PETE.
Hong-Min Lee and Matthew D. Curtner-Smith
Kate Lambourne, Richard Washburn, Jaehoon Lee, Jessica L. Betts, David Thomas, Bryan Smith, Cheryl Gibson, Debra Kay Sullivan and Joseph Donnelly
Fluid milk consumed in conjunction with resistance training (RT) provides additional protein and calcium, which may enhance the effect of RT on body composition. However, the literature on this topic is inconsistent with limited data in adolescents. Therefore, we examined the effects of a supervised RT program (6 mo, 3 d/wk, 7 exercises, 40–85% 1-repetition maximum) with daily milk supplementation (24 oz/day, one 16-oz dose immediately post-RT) on weight, fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) assessed via dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (baseline, 3 mo, 6 mo) in a sample of middle-school students who were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 supplement groups: milk, isocaloric carbohydrate (100% fruit juice), or water (control). Thirty-nine boys and 69 girls (mean age = 13.6 yr, mean BMI percentile = 85th) completed the study: milk n = 36, juice n = 34, water n = 38. The results showed no significant differences between groups for change in body weight (milk = 3.4 ± 3.7 kg, juice = 4.2 ± 3.1 kg, water = 2.3 ± 2.9 kg), FM (milk = 1.1 ± 2.8 kg, juice = 1.6 ± 2.5 kg, water = 0.4 ± 3.6 kg), or FFM (milk = 2.2 ± 1.9 kg, juice = 2.7 ± 1.9 kg, water = 1.7 ± 2.9 kg) over 6 mo. FFM accounted for a high proportion of the increased weight (milk = 62%, juice = 64%, water = 74%). These results from a sample of predominantly overweight adolescents do not support the hypothesis that RT with milk supplementation enhances changes in body composition compared with RT alone.