Blanca Roman-Viñas, Jorge Marin, Mairena Sánchez-López, Susana Aznar, Rosaura Leis, Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Helmut Schroder, Rocío Ortiz-Moncada, German Vicente, Marcela González-Gross and Lluís Serra-Majem
The first Active Healthy Kids Spanish Report Card aims to gather the most robust information about physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior of children and adolescents.
A Research Working Group of experts on PA and sport sciences was convened. A comprehensive data search, based on a review of the literature, dissertations, gray literature, and experts’ nonpublished data, was conducted to identify the best sources to grade each indicator following the procedures and methodology outlined by the Active Healthy Kids Canada Report Card model.
Overall PA (based on objective and self-reported methods) was graded as D-, Organized Sports Participation as B, Active Play as C+, Active Transportation as C, Sedentary Behavior as D, School as C, and Family and Peers as Incomplete, Community and the Built Environment as Incomplete, and Government as Incomplete.
Spanish children and adolescents showed low levels of adherence to PA and sedentary behavior guidelines, especially females and adolescents. There is a need to achieve consensus and harmonize methods to evaluate PA and sedentary behavior to monitor changes over time and to evaluate the effectiveness of policies to promote PA.
Raquel Aparicio-Ugarriza, Raquel Pedrero-Chamizo, María del Mar Bibiloni, Gonzalo Palacios, Antoni Sureda, Agustín Meléndez-Ortega, Josep Antoni Tur Marí and Marcela González-Gross
As there is no gold-standard methodology to classify older people in relation to physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB), this paper aimed to propose a classification combining PA and SB.
Within a broader study, 433 subjects, aged 55 years and older (57% females) from Madrid and Majorca, were evaluated for PA and SB by means of validated questionnaires. Physical fitness was analyzed objectively using the EXERNET test battery. Cluster analyses were used to establish behavioral patterns, combining PA and SB.
Males spent more time doing regular PA but less time walking and working at home than females (P < .001). Comparing the groups (inactive and high sedentary, inactive and low sedentary, active and high sedentary, and active and low sedentary), the worst aerobic endurance (P < .001) and lower body strength (P < .05) were obtained in males from both inactive groups. Agility was highest in the active and low sedentary group (P < .05). No significant differences were observed in females.
The proposed classification is valid, as it classifies subjects according to their PA and SB, and outcomes are related to objectively measured fitness. It could facilitate the work of public health authorities, researchers, and physicians.