In this article, the authors report the results of a case study examining a group-based exercise program for older adult men. The purpose of the investigation was to identify the elements of this program responsible for its appeal. Interviews, conducted with a purposely sampled subset of program members, were subject to content-analytic procedures. Participants identified social connectedness (reflected by themes of demographic homogeneity, support and care, customs and traditions, and interpersonal comparisons) and supportive leadership behaviors (constituted by communication, the provision of choice, and individualized attention) as major attractions in the program. A few participants also noted the challenge that exists when a program is seen by some as being a social program that provides opportunities for exercise and by others as an exercise program that provides opportunities for socializing. Findings are discussed in relation to contextual factors associated with older adult men’s involvement in physical activity programs.
William L. Dunlop and Mark R. Beauchamp
Mark R. Beauchamp and Lauren C. Whinton
One-day equestrian eventing comprises three disciplines: dressage, show-jumping, and cross-country. Participants in the present study were 187 riders (38 M, 149 F) competing in one of two intermediate-level 1-day competitions. Participants’ perceptions of their own (self-efficacy) and their horses’ abilities (other-efficacy) were assessed 30 minutes prior to each stage of competition and examined in relation to subsequent riding performance. For dressage, self efficacy (β = –.20, p < .05) and other-efficacy (β = –.26, p < .01) were each able to explain unique variance in dressage performance (adj. R 2 = .16). However, for both show-jumping and cross-country disciplines, neither form of efficacy was associated with the corresponding measure of riding performance. The results for show-jumping and cross-country may be explained by the lack of variability and heavily skewed nature of the performance data in these two contexts. Consistent with previous research, the results for dressage suggest that self-efficacy may be an important predictor of performance in sport. However, in line with theorizing by Lent and Lopez (2002), the results suggest that other-efficacy may also be an important predictor of behavioral enactment within performing dyads.
Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp
Drawing from Lent and Lopez’s (2002) “tripartite” model of relational efficacy, the overall purpose of this study was to examine antecedents and consequences of self-effcacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) within six international-level athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted and data were content analyzed using deductive and inductive procedures. Sources of efficacy emerged in relation to perceptions regarding (i) oneself, (ii) one’s partner, (iii) the dyad/relationship, and (iv) external factors. Results also revealed the emergence of a number of salient intrapersonal and interpersonal outcomes, incorporating cognitive, affective, as well as behavioral consequences. Implications for theory development and future research are considered, and applied propositions are discussed with regard to effective relationship management in elite sport.
Ben Jackson, Mark R. Beauchamp and Peter Knapp
The first purpose of this study was to examine the interrelationships among three forms of relational efficacy within performing dyads, namely, self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy. The second objective was to examine the relationships between these efficacy beliefs and athletes’ perceptions of their commitment to and satisfaction with their current partnership. Participants were 120 junior tennis players (age, M = 14.30 years, SD = 1.21) performing within 60 intact pairs (i.e., doubles). Results revealed that self-efficacy and other-efficacy were predictive of athlete commitment and satisfaction, respectively. In addition, by utilizing actor–partner interdependence models, partner as well as actor effects were evident. The findings illustrate that relational efficacy beliefs may not only have implications for the individual holding such beliefs, but also for his or her relational partner. Implications for the future study of efficacy beliefs within dyadic contexts are discussed.
William L. Dunlop, Daniel J. Beatty and Mark R. Beauchamp
This research examined the relative effects of other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs in relation to individual performance within a cooperative dyadic setting. Pairs of female participants (Mage = 20.08, SD = 1.93) performed three practice trials on a dyadic dance-based videogame. Other-efficacy and self-efficacy beliefs were then manipulated through the provision of bogus feedback regarding each pair member's coordination abilities. Following the administration of this feedback, pairs performed a final trial on this dance-based task. The results revealed a main effect for other-efficacy, such that participants in the enhanced other-efficacy conditions outperformed those in the inhibited other-efficacy conditions on this task. A main effect for self-efficacy was not observed. Furthermore, there was no evidence of an interaction between other-efficacy and self-efficacy. The results of this study suggest that other-efficacy may supersede the effects of self-efficacy in supporting personal performance within cooperative relational contexts.
Mark R. Beauchamp, Steven R. Bray, Mark A. Eys and Albert V. Carron
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between role ambiguity and precompetition state anxiety (A-state). Consistent with multidimensional anxiety theory (Martens, Vealey, & Burton, 1990), it was hypothesized that role ambiguity would be positively related to cognitive but not to somatic A-state. Based on the conceptual model presented by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002), role ambiguity in sport was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (i.e., scope of responsibilities, role behaviors, role evaluation, and role consequences) potentially manifested in each of two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with hypotheses, ambiguity in terms of the scope of offensive role responsibilities predicted cognitive A-state (R2 = .19). However, contrary to hypotheses, offensive role-consequences ambiguity also predicted somatic A-state (R2 = .09). Results highlight the importance of using a multidimensional approach to investigate role ambiguity in sport and are discussed in terms of both theory advancement and possible interventions.
Mark A. Eys, Albert V. Carron, Mark R. Beauchamp and Steven R. Bray
The general purpose of the present study was to examine the nature of role ambiguity in sport teams and to explore the construct validity of the operational definition of role ambiguity developed by Beauchamp, Bray, Eys, and Carron (2002). Role ambiguity was operationalized as a multidimensional construct (Scope of Responsibilities, Behavioral Responsibilities, Evaluation of Performance, and Consequences of Not Fulfilling Responsibilities) that occurs in two contexts, offense and defense. Consistent with the a priori hypothesis, perceptions of role ambiguity exhibited some degree of within-group consistency and group-level variability, but most of the variance in role ambiguity was seen at the individual level. Also, perceptions of role ambiguity decreased from early to late season. Finally, veteran athletes experienced less role ambiguity than first-year athletes at the beginning of the season, but not at the end. Implications of the findings and suggestions for future research are discussed.
Desmond McEwan, Bruno D. Zumbo, Mark A. Eys and Mark R. Beauchamp
The purpose of this research was to develop a questionnaire to assess the multidimensional construct of teamwork in sport and to examine various aspects of validity related to that instrument. A preliminary questionnaire was first created, and feedback on this instrument was then obtained from a sample of team-sport athletes (n = 30) and experts in sport psychology (n = 8). A modified version of the questionnaire was then completed by 607 athletes from 48 teams, and 5 multilevel confirmatory factor analyses were conducted to examine the structural properties of data derived from this instrument. Evidence of adequate model-data fit along with measurement reliability was obtained for each of the 5 models. Taken together, the results from this research provide support for the content, substantive, and structural aspects of construct validity for data derived from the 66-item Multidimensional Assessment of Teamwork in Sport.
Mark A. Eys, James Hardy, Albert V. Carron and Mark R. Beauchamp
The general purpose of the present study was to determine if perceptions of team cohesion are related to the interpretation athletes attach to their precompetition anxiety. Specifically examined was the association between athlete perceptions of task cohesiveness (Individual Attractions to the Group– Task, ATG-T, and Group Integration–Task, GI-T) and the degree to which perceptions of the intensity of precompetition anxiety symptoms (cognitive and somatic) were viewed as facilitative versus debilitative. Participants were athletes (N = 392) from the sports of soccer, rugby, and field hockey. Each athlete completed the Group Environment Questionnaire (Carron, Widmeyer, & Brawley, 1985) after a practice session. A directionally modified version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (Martens, Burton, Vealey, Bump, & Smith, 1990) was completed just prior to a competition. Results showed that athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of both ATG-T and GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 260) = 8.96, p < .05, than athletes who perceived their cognitive anxiety as debilitative. Also, athletes who perceived their somatic anxiety as facilitative had higher perceptions of GI-T, χ2 (2, N = 249) = 5.85, p < .05.
Erica L. Carleton, Julian Barling, Amy M. Christie, Melissa Trivisonno, Kelsey Tulloch and Mark R. Beauchamp
Based on the contention that leadership has sustained effects on followers even after the leader–follower relationship has ended, we investigated the career-long effects of abusive coach leadership on athlete aggression and task performance. Abusive leadership scores were derived from ratings by two independent raters’ evaluations of coaches’ biographies, and athlete aggression and task performance data were derived from objective sources. Data were obtained from players (N = 693) and coaches (N = 57) involved in the National Basketball Association (NBA) between the 2000–2001 and 2005–2006 seasons. Controlling for tenure, salary, team winning percentage, and absence due to injuries, multilevel modeling showed that exposure to abusive leadership influenced both the trajectory of psychological aggression and task performance over players’ careers. These findings suggest that the effects of abusive leadership extend far longer than currently acknowledged, thus furthering our understanding of the nature and effects of abusive leadership.