The concept of social effectiveness tends to be explained in terms of individual’s ability to identify, comprehend, and attain effective social networks that can produce advantageous career and life outcomes. Researchers have repeatedly demonstrated that a strong connection between social effectiveness and leadership effectiveness exists. However, while most undergraduate and graduate sport management skills textbooks include a chapter or several chapters about leadership, few devote more than several pages to social effectiveness constructs. Contemporary sport pedagogy articles about teaching leadership also do not explore the important connection between social effectiveness and leadership adequately. Therefore, given the salience of social effectiveness to leadership as well as the need for more complete investigations of the manner by which leaders engage in effective leadership behaviors, the present review critically examines social effectiveness as a means to successful sport leadership and proposes specific pedagogical practices for sport management educators.
Marshall Magnusen and Pamela L. Perrewé
Samuel Todd, Marshall Magnusen, Tony Lachowetz and Amy Jones
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Yu Kyoum Kim
The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review of how consumer satisfaction research in the sport management and the nonsport literatures has developed over the past several decades, and, with that information, to propose a new comparison standard in the formation of sport consumer satisfaction. Though several alternative explanations of consumer satisfaction have been developed, expectancy-disconfirmation framework is the theoretical foundation most used in consumer satisfaction research. However, expectancy-disconfirmation theory does not allow researchers to fully assess the potential complexity of sport consumer satisfaction. Therefore, in addition to recommendations for improving the application of expectancy-disconfirmation, we also propose counterfactual thinking as an alternative comparison standard in determining sport consumer satisfaction. The proposed framework contributes to the literature on sport consumer behavior by illustrating how sport consumers use a “what might have been” rather than “what was” heuristic to explain satisfaction judgments with their sport consumption experiences.
Yukyoum Kim, Hyun-Woo Lee, Marshall J. Magnusen and Minjung Kim
Sponsorship is a significant element of today’s marketing communication. Nevertheless, managers and researchers lack of systematic and integrative understanding of key factors that influence sponsorship outcomes and the contexts in which the relationships between sponsorship effectiveness antecedents and outcomes are stronger or weaker. The authors attempt to address this gap by providing a systematic meta-analytic review of sponsorship effectiveness that incorporates (1) cognitive, affective, and conative consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; (2) sponsor-related, dyadic, and sponsee-related antecedents to consumer-focused sponsorship outcomes; and (3) sponsorship-related and methodological moderators of the relationships between the three antecedent categories and three outcome categories. Our findings help assess the validity and robustness of the predictive capability of the antecedents, and they also offer a more generalizable and empirically established set of factors that are vital to the achievement of key sponsorship outcomes. Several of our results afford noteworthy implications for improving the effectiveness of sponsorship research and practice.
Marshall Magnusen, Andrew Gallucci, Stephen Kelly and Josh Brown
This case is a creative illustration of organizational politics in a National Collegiate Athletics Association (NCAA) sports setting. It includes the exploration of several key concepts: political will, political skill, political perceptions, political behavior, and political influence theory. Upon arriving to his new job at the Division I level, an assistant men’s basketball coach finds himself to be a key piece in a political chess match between the highly successful Head Coach of the men’s basketball team and the Athletic Director (AD). The issue at hand is the hiring of the new assistant coach by the AD without the support of the head coach. The hire is an attempt by the AD to subvert and eventually replace the legendary head coach who, in the eyes of the AD, is long past his prime. Accordingly, the new hire encounters a variety of political scenarios, including strong resistance from the players and coaching staff of the men’s basketball team. This case, with the addition of detailed teaching notes, is designed to highlight salient elements of organizational politics to undergraduate and graduate sport management students, and explain how they can successfully apply this information and more effectively operate in the political sports arena.
Jun Woo Kim, Marshall Magnusen and Hyun-Woo Lee
Investigating the existence of mixed emotions within a sport consumer behavior context is the purpose of this study. Two experimental studies with a 4 (game outcome) × 2 (response format) mixed model analysis of covariance were implemented. The authors tested concurrence of two opposite emotions in Study 1 by asking subjects to complete an online continuous measure of happiness/sadness. Subjects reported more mixed emotions while watching a conflicting game outcome, such as a disappointing win and relieving loss, than during a straight game outcome. In Study 2, real-time-based measures of sport consumer emotions appear to have greater validity than recall-based measures of sport consumer emotions. Subjects with real-time-based measures were less likely to report a straight loss as positive and a straight win as negative than those with the retrospective measure. This study provides evidence of mixed emotions; specifically, happiness and sadness can co-occur during sports consumption.
Samuel Y. Todd, Ian Christie, Marshall J. Magnusen and Kenneth J. Harris
This case highlights key elements in Pelled’s (1996) model of diversity, and is based on real life interactions of an actual grounds crew in intercollegiate baseball. The small work group of three individuals collectively prepares the grounds of a new collegiate ballpark for opening day. In the course of daily facility maintenance, the staff encounters both affective and substantive conflict according to Pelled’s model. This leads to both destructive and constructive performance outcomes. Also of issue in the case is the differential relationship that the supervisor shares with each of his subordinates, or leader member exchange (LMX). Together with the teaching notes, the case is designed to highlight (1) elements of group conflict arising from demographic diversity and (2) the nature of LMX within sport organizations. An overview of theory, student applications, and discussion questions and answers are provided to aid instructors in teaching this case.
Kristina Amrani, Andrew Gallucci and Marshall Magnusen
Interval hitting programs (IHP) exist for many overhead sports. Due to the paucity of tennis IHPs, we determined the need for a data-based approach. This case report describes a pilot approach to an IHP for a 21-year-old female tennis player following rotator cuff surgery. Recorded matches were used to acquire necessary data. We approximated the athlete’s workload by calculating total match volume. The athlete completed a 6-week IHP, progressing toward total match volume, before successfully returning to competition. A sport-specific IHP, based on an individual’s preinjury performance, can play a key role in rehabilitating common musculoskeletal injuries among tennis players.
Samuel Y. Todd, Marshall Magnusen, Damon P. S. Andrew and Tony Lachowetz
Realistic job previews (RJPs) occur when both positive and negative information about a job is presented to a potential applicant. Because job seekers in the sport industry sometimes target opportunities based upon their personal affection for particular sports/sport organizations, the presentation of realistic information about the actual work could be key. The purpose of this two study, quasi-experimental research design was to examine the effect of RJPs on job seekers’ levels of attraction to sport job openings, perceptions of person-job fit, and job acceptance intentions. Study 1 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and attraction to the job changed after the job seeker encountered realistic information. Study 2 results suggested job seekers’ acceptance intentions and perceived job fit changed after encountering an RJP where perceived prestige was a factor. Thus, RJPs appear to influence the attractiveness, acceptability, and perceived fit of a job opening in sport.