Michael D. Ross and Elizabeth G. Fontenot
The standing heel-rise test has been recommended as a means of assessing calf-muscle performance. To the authors' knowledge, the reliability of the test using intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) has not been reported.
To determine the test-retest reliability of the standing heel-rise test.
Single-group repeated measures.
Seventeen healthy subjects.
Settings and Infevention:
Each subject was asked to perform as many standing heel raises as possible during 2 testing sessions separated by 7 days.
Main Outcome Measures:
Reliability data for the standing heel-rise test were studied through a repeated-measures analysis of variance, ICC2, 1 and SEMs.
The ICC2,1 and SEM values for the standing heel-rise test were .96 and 2.07 repetitions, respectively.
The standing heel-rise test offers clinicians a reliable assessment of calfmuscle performance. Further study is necessary to determine the ability of the standing heel-rise test to detect functional deficiencies in patients recovering from lower leg injury or surgery
Michael D. Ross, Shelly Hooten and Darren Moore
To determine the relationship between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction.
15 at a mean of 30 d after ACL reconstruction.
Lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test.
A significant decrease in lower leg girth and number of repetitions performed on the standing heel-rise test for the involved leg. There was also a low correlation between asymmetries in lower leg girth and standing heel-rise test (r = .25).
Ankle plantar-flexor endurance should be considered when developing rehabilitation programs for the early stages after ACL reconstruction. In this study the ankle of the involved leg attained a significantly smaller angle of maximal standing plantar flexion, suggesting that ankle range of motion should also be assessed. Caution should be used in predicting standing heel-rise asymmetries from asymmetries in lower leg girth in ACL-reconstructed patients.
Ross Tucker, Michael I. Lambert and Timothy D. Noakes
To analyze pacing strategies employed during men's world-record performances for 800-m, 5000-m, and 10,000-m races.
In the 800-m event, lap times were analyzed for 26 world-record performances from 1912 to 1997. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, times for each kilometer were analyzed for 32 (1922 to 2004) and 34 (1921 to 2004) world records.
The second lap in the 800-m event was significantly slower than the first lap (52.0 ± 1.7 vs 54.4 ± 4.9 seconds, P < .00005). In only 2 world records was the second lap faster than the first lap. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, the first and final kilometers were significantly faster than the middle kilometer intervals, resulting in an overall even pace with an end spurt at the end.
The optimal pacing strategy during world-record performances differs for the 800-m event compared with the 5000-m and 10,000-m events. In the 800-m event, greater running speeds are achieved in the first lap, and the ability to increase running speed on the second lap is limited. In the 5000-m and 10,000-m events, an end spurt occurs because of the maintenance of a reserve during the middle part of the race. In all events, pacing strategy is regulated in a complex system that balances the demand for optimal performance with the requirement to defend homeostasis during exercise.