Male youth (8–18 years) with intellectual disability (ID) demonstrate motor proficiency below age-related competence capacities for typically developing youth. Whether below-criteria motor proficiency also exists for females with ID is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-specific differences exist in motor proficiency for youth with ID. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to measure motor proficiency: six items for upper limb coordination, seven items for balance, and six items for bilateral coordination. One hundred and seventy-two (172) males and 85 females with ID but without Down syndrome were divided into five age groups for comparative purposes: 8–10, 11–12, 13–14, 15–16, and 17–21 years. Males scored sufficiently higher than females to suggest that sex data should not be combined to established Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency standards for upper limb coordination, balance, and bilateral coordination subtests.
Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis
Anthony P. Marsh, Michael E. Miller, W. Jack Rejeski, Stacy L. Hutton and Stephen B. Kritchevsky
It is unclear whether strength training (ST) or power training (PT) is the more effective intervention at improving muscle strength and power and physical function in older adults. The authors compared the effects of lower extremity PT with those of ST on muscle strength and power in 45 older adults (74.8 ± 5.7 yr) with self-reported difficulty in common daily activities. Participants were randomized to 1 of 3 treatment groups: PT, ST, or wait-list control. PT and ST trained 3 times/wk for 12 wk using knee-extension (KE) and leg-press (LP) machines at ~70% of 1-repetition maximum (1RM). For PT, the concentric phase of the KE and LP was completed “as fast as possible,” whereas for ST the concentric phase was 2–3 s. Both PT and ST paused briefly at the midpoint of the movement and completed the eccentric phase of the movement in 2–3 s. PT and ST groups showed significant improvements in KE and LP 1RM compared with the control group. Maximum KE and LP power increased approximately twofold in PT compared with ST. At 12 wk, compared with control, maximum KE and LP power were significantly increased for the PT group but not for the ST group. In older adults with compromised function, PT leads to similar increases in strength and larger increases in power than ST.
Aimee E. Roth, Michael G. Miller, Marc Ricard, Donna Ritenour and Brenda L. Chapman
It has been theorized that aquatic balance training differs from land balance training.
To compare the effects of balance training in aquatic and land environments.
Between-groups, repeated-measures design.
Biomechanics laboratory and pool.
24 healthy subjects randomly assigned to aquatic (n = 8), land (n = 10), or control (n = 6) groups.
Four weeks of balance training.
Main Outcome Measures:
Balance was measured (pre, mid, post, follow-up). COP variables: radial area, y range, x range in single leg (SL), tandem (T), single leg foam (SLF), and tandem form (TF) stance.
A significant condition × time interaction for x range was found, with improvements for SL, SLF, and TF. Radial area improved, with post-test 1.01 ± .23 cm2 and follow-up 1.06 ± .18 cm2 significantly lower than pretest 1.18 ± .23 cm2. Y range significantly improved, with posttest (4.69 ± 1.02 cm2) lower than pretest (5.89 ± 1.26 cm2). The foam conditions (SLF & TF) were significantly different from non-foam conditions (SL & T) for all variables.
Results of this study show that balance training can effectively be performed in both land and aquatic environments.
Kathleen E. Miller, Merrill J. Melnick, Grace M. Barnes, Michael P. Farrell and Don Sabo
Although previous research has established that high school sports participation might be associated with positive academic outcomes, the parameters of the relationship remain unclear. Using a longitudinal sample of nearly 600 western New York adolescents, this study examined gender- and race-specific differences on the impact of two dimensions of adolescent athletic involvement (“jock” identity and athlete status) on changes in school grades and school misconduct over a 2-year interval. Female and Black adolescents who identified themselves as jocks reported lower grades than did those who did not, whereas female athletes reported higher grades than female nonathletes. Jocks also reported significantly more misconduct (including skipping school, cutting classes, having someone from home called to the school for disciplinary purposes, and being sent to the principal’s office) than did nonjocks. Gender moderated the relationship between athlete status and school misconduct; athletic participation had a less salutary effect on misconduct for girls than for boys.
Kathleen E. Miller, Grace M. Barnes, Don Sabo, Merrill J. Melnick and Michael P. Farrell
Contrary to popular assumption, adolescent anabolic-androgenic steroid use is not limited to serious male athletes. This paper examines the relationships among gender, athletic participation, and health-related problem behaviors among adolescent steroid users. Regression analyses were performed on a nationally representative sample of over 16,000 high school students (the 1997 Youth Risk Behavior Survey), of whom nearly 500 had used steroids. Compared to nonusers, steroid users were significantly more likely to report substance use, suicidal behavior, and sexual risk-taking; however, patterns of risk behavior varied by the user’s athletic status and gender. After controlling for age, race, ethnicity, and parental education, both athletic participation and female gender were negatively associated with most risk behaviors among users of anabolic steroids.
Kathleen E. Miller, Michael P. Farrell, Donald F. Sabo, Grace M. Barnes and Merrill J. Melnick
In this paper, we examine the relationships among athletic participation and sexual behavior, contraceptive use, and pregnancy in female and male high school students. Analyses of covariance and multiple analyses of covariance were performed on a nationally representative sample of 8,979 high school students (the 1995 Youth Risk Behavior Survey). After controlling for race and ethnicity, age, and mother’s education, girls who participated in sports had lower rates of sexual experience, fewer sex partners, later age of first intercourse, higher rates of contraceptive use, and lower rates of past pregnancy than girls who did not participate. Male high school athletes reported higher rates of sexual experience and more partners than nonathletes, but—like their female counterparts—were also more likely to have used birth control during their most recent intercourse. Cultural resource theory suggests that athletic participation may reduce girls’ adherence to conventional cultural scripts while providing them with additional social and personal resources on which to draw in the sexual bargaining process. Sports provides boys with similar resources while strengthening their commitment to traditional masculine scripts.
Melissa Daly, Meghan E. Vidt, Joel D. Eggebeen,, W. Greg Simpson, Michael E. Miller, Anthony P. Marsh and Katherine R. Saul
Aging leads to a decline in strength and an associated loss of independence. The authors examined changes in muscle volume, maximum isometric joint moment, functional strength, and 1-repetition maximum (1RM) after resistance training (RT) in the upper extremity of older adults. They evaluated isometric joint moment and muscle volume as predictors of functional strength. Sixteen healthy older adults (average age 75 ± 4.3 yr) were randomized to a 6-wk upper extremity RT program or control group. The RT group increased 1RM significantly (p < .01 for all exercises). Compared with controls, randomization to RT led to greater functional pulling strength (p = .003), isometric shoulder-adduction moment (p = .041), elbow-flexor volume (p = .017), and shoulder-adductor volume (p = .009). Shoulder-muscle volumes and isometric moments were good predictors of functional strength. The authors conclude that shoulder strength is an important factor for performing functional reaching and pulling tasks and a key target for upper extremity RT interventions.
Edward M. Phillips, Jeffrey Katula, Michael E. Miller, Michael P. Walkup, Jennifer S. Brach, Abby C. King, W. Jack Rejeski, Tim Church and Roger A. Fielding
To examine baseline characteristics and change in gait speed and Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB) scores in participants medically suspended (MS) from a physical activity intervention (PA).
Randomized controlled trial.
University and community centers.
Sedentary older adults (N = 213) randomized to PA in the Lifestyle Interventions and Independence for Elders Pilot (LIFE-P).
MS was defined as missing 3 consecutive PA sessions in adoption and transition phases or 2 wk in maintenance phase because of a health event.
In all, 122 participants completed PA without MS (NMS subgroup), 48 participants underwent MS and resumed PA (SR subgroup), and 43 participants underwent MS and did not complete PA (SNR subgroup). At baseline, SNR walked slower (p = .03), took more prescribed medications (p = .02), and had lower SPPB scores than NMS and SR (p = .02). Changes from baseline to Month 12 SPPB scores were affected by suspension status, adjusted mean (SE) SPPB change: SNR 0.0957 (0.3184), SR 0.9413 (0.3063), NMS 1.0720 (0.1871); p = .03.
MS participants unable to return to complete the PA in a trial of mobility-limited sedentary older adults had slower walking speeds, lower SPPB scores, and a higher number of prescribed medications at baseline. Change in SPPB scores at 12 months was related to suspension status.
JoEllen Wilbur, Michael E. Schoeny, Susan W. Buchholz, Louis Fogg, Arlene Michaels Miller, Lynne T. Braun, Shannon Halloway and Barbara L. Dancy
For interventions to be implemented effectively, fidelity must be documented. We evaluated fidelity delivery, receipt, and enactment of the 48-week Women’s Lifestyle Physical Activity Program conducted to increase physical activity and maintain weight in African American women.
Three study conditions all received 6 group meetings; 1 also received 11 motivational interviewing personal calls (PCs), 1 received11 automated motivational message calls (ACs), and 1 received no calls. Group meeting delivery was assessed for adherence and competence. PC delivery was assessed with the Motivational Interviewing Treatment Integrity Code. Receipt was defined as group meeting attendance, completion of PCs, and listening to ACs. Enactment was number of weeks an accelerometer was worn.
For group meeting delivery, mean adherence was 80.8% and mean competence 2.9 of 3.0. Delivery of PCs did not reach criterion for competence. Receipt of more than one-half the dose was achieved for 84.9% of women for group meetings, 85.5% for PCs, and 42.1% for ACs. Higher group meeting attendance was associated with higher accelerometer steps at 24 weeks and lower BMI at 24 and 48 weeks.
Fidelity measurement and examination of intervention delivery, receipt, and enactment are important to explicate conditions in which interventions are successful.