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  • Author: Michael E. Miller x
  • Athletic Training, Therapy, and Rehabilitation x
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Ken Pitetti, Ruth Ann Miller and E. Michael Loovis

Male youth (8–18 years) with intellectual disability (ID) demonstrate motor proficiency below age-related competence capacities for typically developing youth. Whether below-criteria motor proficiency also exists for females with ID is not known. The purpose of this study was to determine if sex-specific differences exist in motor proficiency for youth with ID. The Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency was used to measure motor proficiency: six items for upper limb coordination, seven items for balance, and six items for bilateral coordination. One hundred and seventy-two (172) males and 85 females with ID but without Down syndrome were divided into five age groups for comparative purposes: 8–10, 11–12, 13–14, 15–16, and 17–21 years. Males scored sufficiently higher than females to suggest that sex data should not be combined to established Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency standards for upper limb coordination, balance, and bilateral coordination subtests.

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Aimee E. Roth, Michael G. Miller, Marc Ricard, Donna Ritenour and Brenda L. Chapman

Context:

It has been theorized that aquatic balance training differs from land balance training.

Objective:

To compare the effects of balance training in aquatic and land environments.

Design:

Between-groups, repeated-measures design.

Setting:

Biomechanics laboratory and pool.

Participants:

24 healthy subjects randomly assigned to aquatic (n = 8), land (n = 10), or control (n = 6) groups.

Intervention:

Four weeks of balance training.

Main Outcome Measures:

Balance was measured (pre, mid, post, follow-up). COP variables: radial area, y range, x range in single leg (SL), tandem (T), single leg foam (SLF), and tandem form (TF) stance.

Results:

A significant condition × time interaction for x range was found, with improvements for SL, SLF, and TF. Radial area improved, with post-test 1.01 ± .23 cm2 and follow-up 1.06 ± .18 cm2 significantly lower than pretest 1.18 ± .23 cm2. Y range significantly improved, with posttest (4.69 ± 1.02 cm2) lower than pretest (5.89 ± 1.26 cm2). The foam conditions (SLF & TF) were significantly different from non-foam conditions (SL & T) for all variables.

Conclusions:

Results of this study show that balance training can effectively be performed in both land and aquatic environments.