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  • Author: Pak-Kwong Chung x
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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-Kwong Chung

Purpose: The purpose of this study was two-fold: to examine the motivational profiles of secondary school students in physical education classes, and to examine the associations between the students’ motivational profile characteristics and positive and negative affective experiences. Methods: A total of 1,570 students from Hong Kong were invited to complete four questionnaires: the Perceived Locus of Causality Scale, the Psychological Needs Satisfaction Scale in Physical Education, The Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, and the International Positive and Negative Affect Schedule Short Form. A two-step cluster analysis was performed to explore the motivational profiles while MANOVAs were conducted to examine the criterion validity of the cluster analysis and differences on affective outcomes between motivational profiles. Results: Four motivational profiles were identified: non-self-determined, moderate controlled and low autonomous (Mod C-Low AU), high controlled and moderate autonomous (High C-Mod AU), and self-determined. The results revealed that students in different profiles reported different affective experiences. Conclusion: Motivational profiles based on self-determination theory may be better explained from a psychological needs perspective, and students in different profiles may undergo different affective experiences.

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Jing Dong Liu and Pak-kwong Chung

The current study presents the development process and initial validation of a measure designed for assessing psychological needs thwarting (frustration) in a secondary school physical education context (Psychological Needs Thwarting Scale in Physical Education, PNTSPE). Secondary school students (grades 7–9) from Hong Kong (N = 1258) were invited to participate in three studies. In Study 1, item generation and initial content validity of the PNTSPE were achieved. In Study 2, the factorial structure of the measure was tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Internal consistency reliabilities of the subscales were also examined. In Study 3, the reliability and validity of the scores derived from the PNTSPE were further examined in an independent sample. Overall, the findings from the three studies provided initial psychometric evidence for the PNTSPE and suggested that the PNTSPE could be used as a valid and reliable measure to assess Hong Kong secondary school students’ psychological needs thwarting in physical education.

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Stephen H.S Wong, Oi Won Chan, Ya Jun Chen, Heng Long Hu, Ching Wan Lam and Pak Kwong Chung


This study examined the effect of consuming carbohydrate- (CHO) electrolyte solution on running performance after different-glycemic-index (GI) meals.


Nine men completed 3 trials in a randomized counterbalanced order, with trials separated by at least 7 days. Two hours before the run after an overnight fast, each participant consumed a high-GI (GI = 83) or low-GI (GI = 36) CHO meal or low-energy sugar-free Jell-O (GI = 0, control). The 2 isocaloric GI meals provided 1.5 g available CHO/kg body mass. During each trial, 2 ml/kg body mass of a 6.6% CHO-electrolyte solution was provided immediately before exercise and every 2.5 km after the start of running. Each trial consisted of a 21-km performance run on a level treadmill. The participants were required to run at 70% VO2max during the first 5 km of the run. They then completed the remaining 16 km as fast as possible.


There was no difference in the time to complete the 21-km run (high-GI vs. low-GI vs. control: 91.1 ± 2.0 vs. 91.8 ± 2.2 vs. 92.9 ± 2.0 min, n.s.). There were no differences in total CHO and fat oxidation throughout the trials, despite differences in preexercise blood glucose, serum insulin, and serum free-fatty-acid concentrations.


When a CHO-electrolyte solution is consumed during a 21-km run, the GI of the preexercise CHO meal makes no difference in running performance.