Using career data for the top jockeys in 1993, a two-equation recursive model is estimated to explain the annual number of mounts raced and the total purse winnings earned across gender. The empirical results indicate that after controlling for performance and experience characteristics, female jockeys secure significantly fewer mounts than male jockeys. Holding performance, the quality of mounts, experience, and the number of mounts constant, the model predicts a significant annual winnings differential in favor of female riders. However, the, observed mean winnings differential favors male riders by a factor approaching six. The results suggest that discriminatory barriers may limit the access of female jockeys to quality mounts and premier racing events and thereby may lower their winnings.
Paul W. Grimes and Margaret A. May
George A. Chressanthis and Paul W. Grimes
This paper investigates the effect of winning, postseason play, and television appearances for football and basketball on first-year student enrollment demand over a 21-year period at a representative NCAA Division I institution. Empirical estimates confirm popular notions that winning on the football field, after traditional enrollment demand factors are controlled, does attract students. However, postseason play and television coverage have no significant effect. The results also suggest that sanctions imposed by the NCAA for rules violations reduce first-year student enrollment demand.