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Pedro Galoza, Felipe Sampaio-Jorge, Marco Machado, Ricardo Fonseca, and Pierre A. V. Silva


To compare the effect of inter-set cooling and no cooling during resistance exercise (RE) on the total repetitions and select muscle damage biomarker responses.


Sixteen healthy men volunteered to participate in this study and were randomly assigned to Cooling (n = 8) or Control (n = 8) groups. They performed a RE protocol consisting of four sets of biceps curl at 80% of 1RM. The cooling group received the application of wet bags of ice during each inter-set rest interval (Cooling), while the Control realized the same protocol without ice application. Exercise was performed to voluntary fatigue and the numbers of repetitions per set were recorded. Subjects provided blood samples before and at 24, 48, and 72 h following RE to evaluate serum CK activity and myoglobin concentration.


The Cooling group produced a greater number of repetitions (approx. 21%) than did the Control, but there were no differences in serum CK activity and myoglobin responses between the groups.


Incorporating inter-set external cooling augments the number of repetitions per set during RE without inducing an additional muscle damage biomarker response.

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Manoel Rios, Rodrigo Zacca, Rui Azevedo, Pedro Fonseca, David B. Pyne, Victor Machado Reis, Daniel Moreira-Gonçalves, and Ricardo J. Fernandes

Aim: To quantify the physiological demands and impact of muscle function t of the Fran workout, one of the most popular CrossFit benchmarks. Methods: Twenty experienced CrossFitters—16 male: 29 (6) years old and 4 female: 26 (5) years old— performed 3 rounds (with 30-s rests in between) of 21–21, 15–15, and 9–9 front squats to overhead press plus pull-up repetitions. Oxygen uptake and heart rate were measured at baseline, during the workout, and in the recovery period. Rating of perceived exertion, blood lactate, and glucose concentrations were assessed at rest, during the intervals, and in the recovery period. Muscular fatigue was also monitored at rest and at 5 minutes, 30 minutes, and 24 hours postexercise. Repeated-measures analysis of variance was performed to compare time points. Results: Aerobic (52%–29%) and anaerobic alactic (30%–23%) energy contributions decreased and the anaerobic lactic contribution increased (18%–48%) across the 3 rounds of the Fran workout. Countermovement jump height decreased by 8% (−12 to −3) mean change (95% CI), flight duration by 14% (−19 to −7), maximum velocity by 3% (−5 to −0.1), peak force 4% (−7 to −0.1), and physical performance (plank prone 47% [−54 to −38]) were observed. Conclusions: It appears that the Fran workout is a physically demanding activity that recruits energy from both aerobic and anaerobic systems. This severe-intensity workout evokes substantial postexercise fatigue and corresponding reduction in muscle function.

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Marisa Maia Leonardi-Figueiredo, Mariana Angélica de Souza, Elisangela Aparecida da Silva Lizzi, Luciano Fonseca Lemos de Oliveira, Julio Cesar Crescencio, Pedro Vellosa Schwartzmann, Lourenço Gallo Jr, and Ana Claudia Mattiello-Sverzut

Purpose: We analyzed the evolution and pattern of heart rate (HR) during the 12-minute wheelchair propulsion field test (WPFT) and compared the peak HR (HRpeak) from the WPFT to the HRpeak obtained in the progressive cardiopulmonary exercise test on arm cranking ergometer (ACT). We aimed to determine if the field test detects the HRpeak consistently and could be used in clinical practice. Methods: Eleven wheelchair-using children and adolescents with myelomeningocele (aged 8–15 y) performed a maximal ACT and a 12-minute WPFT. HR was recorded continuously at rest, during each minute of the tests, and at recovery. Mixed analysis of variance was used to compare the variables at rest and peak. Bland–Altman plot and Lin’s concordance correlation coefficient were used to show agreement between the tests. Results: During minute 2 of the WPFT, participants reached 73%–96% of the HRpeak values recorded in the ACT. From minutes 4 to 12, participants reached HRpeak values ranging 86%–109% of the values recorded in the ACT. There is agreement between the ACT and the WPFT tests. Conclusion: WPFT with minimal duration of 4 minutes may be an alternative tool to obtain HRpeak in children and adolescents with myelomeningocele.

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Karenina Arrais Guida Modesto, Pedro Ferreira Alves de Oliveira, Hellora Gonçalves Fonseca, Klaus Porto Azevedo, Vinicius Guzzoni, Martim Bottaro, Nicolas Babault, and Joao Luiz Quagliotti Durigan

Context: Neuromuscular electrical stimulation is widely used to induce muscular strength increase; however, no study has compared Russian current (RC) with pulsed current (PC) effects after a training program. Objectives: We studied the effects of different neuromuscular electrical stimulation currents, RC, and PC on the neuromuscular system after a 6-week training period. Design: Blinded randomized controlled trial. Setting: Laboratory. Patients: A total of 27 male soccer players (age 22.2 [2.2] y, body mass 74.2 [10.0] kg, height 177 [0] cm, and body mass index 23.7 [2.9] kg/cm2 for the control group; 22.1 [3.1] y, 69.7 [5.7] kg, 174 [0] cm, and 23.0 [2.5] kg/cm for the PC group; and 23.0 [3.4] y, 72.1 [10.7] kg, 175 [0] cm, and 23.5 [3.4] kg/cm for the RC group) were randomized into 3 groups: (1) control group; (2) RC (2500 Hz, burst 100 Hz, and phase duration 200 μs); and (3) PC (100 Hz and 200 μs). Intervention: The experimental groups trained for 6 weeks, with 3 sessions per week with neuromuscular electrical stimulation. Main Outcome Measures: Maximal voluntary isometric contraction and evoked torque, muscle architecture, sensory discomfort (visual analog scale), and electromyographic activity were evaluated before and after the 6-week period. Results: Evoked torque increased in the RC (169.5% [78.2%], P < .01) and PC (248.7% [81.1%], P < .01) groups. Muscle thickness and pennation angle increased in the RC (8.7% [3.8%] and 16.7% [9.0%], P < .01) and PC (16.1% [8.0%] and 27.4% [11.0%], P < .01) groups. The PC demonstrated lower values for visual analog scale (38.8% [17.1%], P < .01). There was no significant time difference for maximal voluntary isometric contraction and root mean square values (P > .05). For all these variables, there was no difference between the RC and PC (P > .05). Conclusion: Despite the widespread use of RC in clinical practice, RC and PC training programs produced similar neuromuscular adaptations in soccer players. Nonetheless, as PC generated less perceived discomfort, it could be preferred after several training sessions.