The goal of this investigation was to gain insight into the status of applied sport psychology in Europe, using the French-speaking part of Belgium as a case study. In contrast to previous studies, which have only focused on official scientific membership lists, the present survey examined the delivery of sport psychology services independent of practitioners’ educational background, membership, level of certification, and/or the topics addressed within their practice. Results revealed that degree-holding psychologists and people without any credentials coexist. Practitioners highlighted the need for informing the world of sport about applied sport psychology, developing specific training programs in sport psychology, and certifying people working as sport psychologists. Similar research across Europe, considering any professional delivering sport psychology services, is necessary to develop a more comprehensive picture of the subject.
Xavier Sanchez, Philippe Godin and Fabrice De Zanet
Trent Stellingwerff, Jean-Philippe Godin, Maurice Beaumont, Aude Tavenard, Dominik Grathwohl, Peter J. van Bladeren, Anne-France Kapp, Johannes le Coutre and Sami Damak
Recent studies have demonstrated a direct link between increased exogenous CHO oxidation (CHOexog) and enhanced performance. The limiting factor for CHOexog appears to be at the level of intestinal transporters, with sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (SGLT1) and glucose transporter Type 5 (GLUT5) responsible for glucose and fructose transport, respectively. Studies in animal models have shown that SGLT1 and intestinal glucose uptake are up-regulated by high carbohydrate diets or noncaloric sweeteners. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of preexercise ingestion of noncaloric sweeteners on CHOexog during exercise in athletes. In a randomized, crossover, double-blind fashion twenty-three healthy male cyclists (age = 29 ± 7yrs, mass = 73.6 ± 7.4kg, VO2peak = 68.3 ± 9.3 ml/kg/min) consumed 8 × 50ml doses of either placebo (CON) or 1mM sucralose (SUCRA) every 15 min starting 120 min before the onset of exercise. This was followed by 2h of cycling at 48.5 ± 8.6% of VO2peak with continual ingestion of a maltodextrin drink (1.2g/min; 828ml/hr). Average CHOexog during the first hour of exercise did not differ between SUCRA and CON conditions (0.226 ± 0.081 g/min vs. 0.212 ± 0.076 g/min, Δ =0.015 g/min, 95%CI -0.008 g/min, 0.038 g/min, p = .178). Blood glucose, plasma insulin and lactate, CHO and fat substrate utilization, heart rate, ratings of perceived exertion, and gastrointestinal symptoms did not differ between conditions. Our data suggest that consumption of noncaloric sweeteners in the immediate period before exercise does not lead to a significant increase in CHOexog during exercise.